scarpino-pnhs-physical properties I.S. vocab

Question Answer
What is a phyiscal property? A physical property is any characteristic of a materialthat can be observed or measured without changing the compositions of substances in the material.
What is viscosity? Viscosity is the tendency of a liquid to keep from flowing. Or it's resistance of flowing.
What is malleability? Malleability is the ability of a solid to be hammered without shattering.
What is melting point? Melting Point is the tempurature at which a material changes from a solid to a liquid.
What is boiling point? Boiling Point is the tempurature at which a material changes from a liquid to a gas.
What is filtration? Filtration is a process that separates materials based on the size of their paricles.
What is disillation? Disillation is a process that separates the substances in a solution based on their boiling points.
What is a physical change? A physical change occurs when some of the properties of a material change, but the substances in the material remain the same.
What is conductivity? Conductivity is the ability a material can pass or flow heat.

study guide on biodiversity

Question Answer
biodiversity Number of different species in and area:has area, climate, and diversity of niches for affects
keystone species influences the survival of many other species
genes the structures in an organisms cell that carry away hereditary information
extinction disappearance from Earth of all members of a species
endangered species species in danger of becoming extinct in the future
threatened species species becoming endangered in near futures (earthquakes)
habitat fragmentation breaking larger habitats into smaller,isolated pieces
poaching illegal killing or removal of wildlife species
captive breeding mating of animals in zoos, or wildlife preserves
What factors affect in an areas biodiversity? Factors that affect an areas biodiversity is climate, and diversity of niches
Witch human activities threaten biodiversity? Some human activities that threaten biodiversity is destruction, poaching,pollution,and introduction of exotic species
How can biodiversity be protected? It can be protected by combine scientific and legal approaches
What three factors affect biodiversity of an ecosystem? Three factors is by climate, area, and diversity of niches
What is one reason coral reefs are such diverse ecosystems? One reason is by the niches for organisms
How does having a diverse gene pool help species survive? Gene pools help by avoiding diseases, parasites, and surviving disturbance
Name and describe three ways to protect the worlds biodiversity Three way to protect is legal approaches, combine scientific, and captive breeding

Name______________ Date________

Question Answer
What is the term of Heredity? It determines the outcome of characteristics.
What is the term of True Breeding? When parents have the same characteristics.
What is the term of Dominant Trait? The stronger characteristics.
What is the term of Recessive Trait? The weaker characteristics.
What is the term of Genes? A set of instructions for a hyritant trait.
What is the term for an Allele? Different forms of a gene.
What is the term for Phenotype? What it looks like, –appearance.
What is the term for Genotype? Genetic make up.
What is the term for monohybrid? One characteristic.
What is the term for Homozygous? One set of letters. Same characteristics.
What is the term for Heterozygous? Dominant/Recessive traits
A=Dominant, a=Recessive

the universe study notes

Question Answer
What is the authors purpose to inform
In the first paragraph in pg.152 who is the closet neighbor to earth moon
what is the main idea of the first paragraph in pg.152 is to show the distances in space
stars are born within nebulas. true or false? true
Young stars are always brighter than the sun.true or false false
when stars are older they become red giants.true or false? true
what generalization can be made about the formation and life cycle of stars?A)Young stars are always brighter than the sun.B)New stars are always found at the top of nebulas.
c)some stars never become red giants.d)some starsgrow ata faster rate thanothe
D = some stars grow at a faster rate than others
What is big in section;and infinite in size Universe
what is the milky way called Galaxy
section of the universe Milky Way
our section of galaxy 9 planets and sun Solar System
why is our planet considered the lonely part our part of the galaxy in our solar system has very few stars placed near us.
what are the 4 types of galaxies spirals,ellipticals,barred spirals,and irregulared shaped.
disk shaped;older stars in center and younger stars in arms spirals
most common;shaped like eggs ellipticals
central stars from bar barred spirals
rarest'dont fit pattern irregular shaped
what are the most common ellipticals
what are the most rarest irregular shape
what do they need to see far away galaxies radio telescope
why do they need the radio telescope to see the far away galaxies before the light fades before reaching the earth
when are quasars produced produced from radio and light waves and when stars vanish into a black hole
why does the author think we are at the golden age of discovery? we have discovered many new things and because of the technology we have and we still have more to discover


Question Answer
Stamen A male reproductive organ
Pistil A female reproductive organ
Ovary swollen base of an angiosperms pistil where egg producing ovules are found
Germination a series of events when a seed begins to grow
Pollination process where pollen lands on the stigma tube grows down and…..
Fertilization when egg cell and sperm cell join.(seed)
stigma female structure where pollen lands
anther male structure that holds pollen

Science Chapter 20

Question Answer
The Sun occupies ______ of our solar system. 99.9%
The energy of the sun is due to the fusion process
The fusion process gives off light and heat
The sun's core is very dense gas at _____ degrees. 15,000,000
Energy of the sun travels through radiative zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere and finally the corona.
Which layer of the sun do we see from earth? photosphere
It takes the _____minutes for light to travel from the Sun to the Earth. 8
What is the outermost layer of the Sun? Corona
What is Auroras? Glowing lights produced by electrically charged solar winds.
Fusion produces _______ in the sun. energy
Fusion may vary in size, brightness and temperature
Light Year The distance light travels in one year
Amount of light(temperature) and distance from earth determines brightness
Parallax is the apparent shift in position of an object
The size of the sun is ______ times bigger than earth. 100
You need a telescope to see white dwarfs (star)
What determines the white, blue or red colors of stars? Temperature
Higher mass stars develop more _________ than lower mass stars. quickly
The main sequence stage of a lower mass star produces energy through fusion of hydrogen into helium
Lower mass stars will last billions of years
Our sun has been a main sequence star for 4.6 billion years and will be one for another _______years 5 billion
Pulsars strong emissions of xrays occur and sometimes radio waves
Supernovas collapse into a ______. black hole
The Milky way galaxy measures more than 100,000 years from the sun
What makes up our galaxy space, stars and planets
Milky Way galaxy is a ___________ galaxy spiral
The center bulge of a spral galaxy is a _______________. black hole
Spiral galaxies also have sprial arms
Elliptical galaxies are shaped like eggs
Irregular shape galaxies are w/o a definite shape
Our galaxy has a black hole with a mass 3 million times that of the sun.
black holes are invisible as gases are pulled toward the center
The universe consists of space, energy and matter
The doppler effect is a change in the observed wavelength
The universe began during THE BIG BANG THEORY

Science Chapter 13

Question Answer
A wave is a distrubance that transfers energy from one place to another.
Water that moves up and down traveling in a wave is known as a disturbance which is transferring energy.
Forces can start disturbances that send waves through a materail. Examples: ropes, water and earthquakes.
Mediums substances which waves move through.
Sound waves move through air.
Mechanical waves move energy through matter
Water, the ground, rope and air are all made up of matter.
Light is a wave that transfer energy through empty space.
Waves caused by an earthquake are good examples of energy transfer
Longitudinal waves travel in the same direction as the disturbance.
Transverse waves travel perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
Waves have amplitude, wavelength and frequency.
Crest highest point of a wave
Trough lowest point of a wave
amplitude from the middle of the wave to the top or bottom of the wave
wavelength distance from one waves crest to the next waves crest
frequency the number of waves which pass a fixed point in a certain amount of time.
As frequency decreases wavelength increases.
Speed= wavelength times frequency
Light waves travel 1,000,0000 times faster than sound waves.
Reflection boucing back of waves
Refraction bending of wave as it enters a medium
diffraction spreading out of waves through an opening
interference meeting and combining of waves
constructive interference is the adding of 2 waves
destruction interference is the subtraction of energy.

Science Chapter 14

Question Answer
Loudness and pitch are important to determining sound quality.
Sound wave that is produced by a vibrating object that travels through matter.
The shorter the object the higher the pitch.
The longer the object the lower the pitch.
Disturbances are back and forth motions that travel in the same direction as the medium.
Our body's sound making instrutment is our voice box (larynx).
Larynx is the voice box.
The middle ear consists of a hammer, anvil and stirrup are the eardrum.
Sound waves vibrate particles. sound waves vibrate particles.
Kinectic energy is transferred as particles are moved by compression. (particles are moving)
Robert Boyle,a british scientist, used a clock to show that sound must have a medium.
The closer the molecules are the faster sound travels.
As temperatures increases sound travels faster.
Pitch is the highness or lowness of a sound.
Objects vibrating very fast produce high-pitched sounds.
Objects vibrating very slowly produce a lower-pitched sounds.
Cycle one complete wave.
People hear in a range of 20 to 20,000HZ.
Ground waves are used by elephants to communicate up to 20 miles away.
Ultrasounds are waves above 20.000Hz.
Resonance is the the strengthing of a sound wave.
The combination of waves produces sound quality known as TIMBRE
Oscilloscope is a scientific instrument that tracks a electrical signal.
Christian Doppler (Austrian scientist) wrote a paper about how pitch changes when the sound source moves towards or away from a person.
If frequency increases the pitch increases.
What makes a sound louder? The amount of energy a wave has determines how soft or loud sound is.
Decibel the unit used to measure intensity
Amplification the increased strength of an electrical signal.
Acoustics the scientific study of sound.
Echoes reflected sound waves
Echoes of ultrasound waves are used to find food, detect underwater objects,etc
Echolocation 200 squeaks/second
Sonar sound navigation and ranging
Sonar is used my the military to combat the enemy
Doppler ultrasound is a technology that detects fluid movement through the body.
3 main musical instruments stringed, wind and percussion
Tech toys to record sound telephones, phonographs and CD players


Question Answer
Stamen male reproductive organ inside the flower of an angiosperm; consist of an anther, where pollen grain and a filament
pistil female reproductive organ inside the flower of an angiosperm; consist of a sticky stigma, where pollen grains land, and an ovary
ovary swollen base of an angiosperm's pistil, where egg-producing ovules are found
petals Each of the segments of the corolla of a flower, which are modified leaves and are typically colored.
sepals Each of the parts of the calyx of a flower, enclosing the petals and typically green and leaflike.
Anther male structure that holds pollen
stigma female structure where pollen lands


Question Answer
germination a series of events when a seed begins to grow
Stamen male reproductive organ inside the flower of an angiosperm ; consists of an anther,where pollen grains form,and a flament
Pistil female reproductive organ inside the flower of an angiosperm ;consist of a sticky stigmas ,where pollen grains land ,and an ovary
ovary swollen base of an angiosperms pistil ,where egg-producing ovules are found