Vocabulary Set 7 – Water Cycle

Question Answer
water that flows or seeps downward and saturates soil or rock, supplying springs and wells. Water stored underground in rock crevices and in the pores of geologic materials that makeup the Earth’s crust. Groundwater
water added to an aquifer. Example: rainfall that seeps into the ground Recharge
all the waters on the earth’s surface, such as lakes and seas, including water in the atmosphere that can be found in clouds and as water vapor. Hydrosphere
water in a gaseous state, especially when diffused as a vapor in the atmosphere and at a temperature below boiling point. Water Vapor
the process of liquid water becoming water vapor, including vaporization from water surfaces, land surfaces, and snowfield, but not from leaf surfaces. Evaporation
formation of rain, snow, sleet, hail from moisture in the air. Dew and frost are also types of precipitation that can form at ground level Precipitation
the process of water vapor in the air turning into liquid water. Water drops on the outside of a cold glass of water are condensed water. Condensation
water that falls and penetrates into the ground. Factors affecting infiltration; amount of precipitation, soil characteristics, soil saturation, land cover, slope of the land, and evapotranspiration. Infiltration
part of the precipitation, snowmelt, or irrigation water that appears in uncontrolled surface streams, rivers, drains or sewers. The speed of flow is determined by area, terrain, amount of precipitation, soil porosity, and land cover. Surface Runoff
(also know as evapotranspiration) – process by which water that is absorbed by plants, usually through the roots, is evaporated into the atmosphere from the plant surface, such as leaf pores. Transpiration
a process in which a substance is converted directly from a solid to a gas or from a gas to a solid without the intermediate liquid phase. (Example: snow to water vapor or water vapor to snow) Sublimation
confined or unconfined water that is in a geologic formation. A geological formation or structure that stores and/or transmits water, such as to wells and springs. Aquifer

Purpose of the flower is to make seeds.

Question Answer
stamen the pollen bearing organ of the flower, consisting of the filament and the anther.
pistil the ovule-bearing or seed-bearing consisting of the style, stigma, ovary, and the ovule.
stamen the pollen bearing organ of the flower, consisting of the filament and the anther.
pistil the ovule-bearing or seed-bearing consisting of the style, stigma, ovary, and the ovule.
ovary the swollen base of the pistil where ovules are found.
stigma female structures where pollen lands.
sepals one of individual leaves of a flower
anther male structure that holds pollen.
petals colored segments of the flower.
germination a series of events when a seed begins to grow.
sepals one of individual leaves of a flower
pollination process
germination a series of events when a seed begins to grow.
pollination process where pollen lands on the stigma tube grows down and….
fertilization when a egg cell and sperm cells join.


Question Answer
Stamen Male reproductive organ inside the flower of on angiosperm; consists of an anther, where pollen grains form, and a filment
Pistil Female reproductive organ inside the flower of an angiosperm; consists of a sticky stigma, where pollen grains land, and a ovary.
Ovary Swollen base of an angiosperm's pistil, where egg- producing ovules are found
Petals colorful parts of a flower
Sepals Outside petals are usually leaflike parts.
Pollination Process where pollen lands on the stimga tube grows down
Fertilization When egg cell and sperm cell joins. (seed)
Germination A series of events when a seed begins to grow
Stigma the part of a pistil that receives the pollen.

nervous system questions to study for science olympiad

Question Answer
a quick involuntary response to a sensory stimulus (knee jerk) reflex action
the bio-electrical signals conducted by nerve cells ar known as neural impulse
the ______ nervous system controls involuntary actions and actions of the internal organs autonomic
the ______ nervous system is responsible for voluntary movements and the senses somatic
conditions or events that cause the body to react are called stimuli
the _____ nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord central
chemical messengers that relay impulses across nerve junctions are called neurotransmitter
the ____ nervous system consists of all nerves outside the brain and the spinal cord peripheral
the 12 pairs of nerves that emerge directly from the brain are collectively called cranial nerves
what kind of actions are controlled by the somatic nervous system? voluntary
which nerves carry light impulses from the retina to the brain? optic nerves
which nerves carry sound impulses from the inner ear to the brain? auditory nerves
name the thick collumn of nervous tissue that connects the brain to all parts of the body spinal cord
what kind of actions are controlled by the autonomic nervous system? involuntary
which nerves carry smell impulses from receptors in the nose to the brain? olfactory nerves
the 31 pairs of nerves that emerge from the spinal cord segments are collectively called: spinal nerves
what type of response protects your hand when it touches a hot surface? reflex
that part of the brain controls the balace and coordinates body movement? cerebellum
the right hemisphere of the brain controls whcih side of the body? left
a neuron that carries signals from the brain to the muscles to control movement is called motor neuron
a neuron that carries stimuli impulses to the brain or spinal cord is termed as sensory neuron
heartbeat,breathing,and digestion are controlled by which nervous system? autonomic
what part of the brain controls thought, voluntary movement,language and reasoning? cerebrum
the left hemishphere of the brain controls which side of the body? right
chemical messengers that relay electrical impulses across a synapse are called neurotransmitter
name the tiny gap between nerve fibers where impulses pass from one neuron to another synapse
what is the scientific term for a nerve cell-cell that conducts bio-electrical signals neuron
neuron that carries stimuli impulses to the brain or spinal cord is termed as: sensory neuron
nerve ending that recognizes a stimulus in the environment and converts it into a signal sensory receptor
short bushy fibers of a neuron that recieve impulses from other neurons are called dendrite
long extension of a nerve call that carries impulses to other neurons,muscles,or glands axon
what part of the brain controls hunger,thirst, body temp.,and sleep cycle hypothalamus
name the three protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord meninges
name the part at the top of the spinal cord that controls the body's involuntary actions brain stem
what specific part of the brain controls breathing,heart rate, and blood pressure medulla
name the large band of neural fibers that connects the two brain hemispheres corpus callosum
protective cushion of liquid that circulates in the brain and spinal cord cerebrospinal fluid
progressive disease that destroys brain cells and causes muscular tremors and rigidity parkinson's disease
brain disorder resulting in gradual loss of memory,reasoning,language& physical functioning alzheimer's disease
abnormal growth of brain tissue that can compress and destroy healthy brain tissue brain tumor
swelling of the brain due to water retention usually causing unconsciousness cerebral edema
injury to the brain caused by sudden impact, usually causing unconsciousness concussion
infection & inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord meningitis
central nervous system disorder characterized by loss of consciousness and severe convulsions epilepsy
damage to brain tissue due to sudden bleeding or blockage of blood vessels in the head stroke
endocrine glands secrete directly into what area of your body blood stream
to produce a response, what do hormones bind to on the surface of target cells receptors
feedback mechanism that steadily increases hormone levels during stimuli is called positive feedback
feedback mechanism that maintains hormone levels within is narrow ranges is called negative feedback
diabetes, a common disease, is a disorder of which endocrine gland pancreas
An example of a slow-acting hormone is human growth hormone
the chemical product of an endocrine gland is called hormone
releases hormone that controls the body's reaction to stress (fight-or-flight response) adrenal gland
releases testosterone that causes development of male reproductive organs testis
releases hormone that affects the wake-sleep patterns and biological rhythms pineal gland
releases hormones that regulates basal metabolic rate, oxygen use, and heat production thyroid gland
releases hormones including insulin that control the blood sugar level and fat metabolism pancreas
releases hormone that controls the amount of calcium in the blood and within the bones parathyroid gland
releases estrogens and progesterone that helps developement and functioning of female reproductive system ovary
releases hormone that controls growth,blood pressure,and repoductive functions & other glands pituitary glands

science chapter 15 on waves

Question Answer
wave is a destebaence that transfers energy from place to place
energy as the ability to do work
medium material at which a wave travels
mechanical wave waves that require medium through which to travel
vibration is repeated back-and-fourth or up-and-down
transverse wave waves that move the medium at right angles to the direction in which the wave travels
longitudinal wave move the medium parallel to the direction in which the waves traveles
compression a part where all the coils are close together
rarefaction these parts were all the coils are spread out
trough lowest part of a transverse wave
crest highest part of a transverse wave
wavelength the distance between two corresponding parts of a wave
amplitude the maximum distance that the particles of the medium carrying the wave
frequency the number of waves that passes a certain spot in a certan amount of time
hertrz frequency is measured in units called ……..
speed of wave speed= wavelength+ frequency
reflection this interaction with a surface (seeing yourself in water)
refraction the bending of waves due to a change in speed
diffraction when two waves going in two different directions meet
constructive interference the interference that occurs when waves combine to make a wave with a larger amplitude
destructive interference an interference that occurs when waves combine and get smaller
resonance is an increase in the amplitude of a vibration
standing wave is a wave that appears to stand taller or in one place, but its the opposite

Chapter 3

Question Answer
ankyl/-o crooked , bent
arthr/o- joint; articulation
chondr/o- cartilage
cost/o- "rib": costicartilage
crani/o- skull
kyph/o- prefix meaning "hump":
myel/o- "spinal cord or bone marrow":
lord/o- the anterior concavity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side.
oss/e- bone
oss/i- prefix meaning "bone
osto/o- Bone marrow on the outside
oste/o- bone.
scoli/o- severe curvation
spondyl/o- vertebra; vertebral column
synovi/o- synovial membrane
synov/o- synovial membrane
sub- means substitute for the bone
meta- Situated behind: metacarpus
-um noun ending
-lysis Decomposition; dissolving; disintegration
-desis a deadly disease
acetabulum the cup-shaped cavity on the lateral surface of the hip bone, receiving the head of the femur.
allogenic denoting an individual or cell type that is from the same species but genetically distinct
ankylosing spondylitis inflammation of the joints in the spine.
arthrodesis the surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells;
arthroscopy examination of a joint, specifically, the inside structures
autologous Of or relating to a natural, normal occurrence in a certain type of tissue or in a specific structure of the body.
chondroma a benign tumor or tumor-like growth of mature hyaline cartilage. It may remain centrally within the substance of a cartilage or bone (enchondroma) or may develop on the surface (juxtacortical or periosteal c.) .
chondromalacia abnormal softening of cartilage
comminuted fracture one in which the bone is splintered or crushed
compression fracture one in which the bone is splintered or crushed
costochondritis inflammation and associated tenderness of the cartilage
craniostenosis Premature closure of the cranial sutures, resulting in malformation of the skull.
crepitation a dry sound like that of grating the ends of a fractured bone.
dual x-ray absorptionmetry
fibrous dysplasia abnormal condition characterized by the fibrous displacement of the osseous tissue within the bones affected
hallux valgus angulation of the great toe toward the other toes.
hemopoietic to make related to the process of formation and development of the various types of blood cells
internal fixation The stabilization of fractured bony parts by direct fixation to one another with surgical wires, screws, pins, or plates
Juvenile Rheumatoid arthritis eumatoid arthritis in children, with swelling, tenderness, and pain involving one or more joints, sometimes leading to impaired growth and development, limitation of movement, and ankylosis and flexion contractures of the joint
kyphosis Kyphosis is the extreme curvature of the upper back also known as a hunchback.
lordosis abnormal increase in this curvature
lumboago pain in the lumbar region
malleolus a rounded process, such as the protuberance on either side of the ankle joint at the lower end of the fibula and the tibia
manubrium handle-like structure or part, such as the manubrium of the sternum.
matacarpals the part of the hand between the wrist and fingers, its skeleton being five bones
metatarsals pertaining to the metatarsus
open fracture one in which a wound through the adjacent or overlying soft tissues communicates with the site of the break.
orthopedic surgion surgery performed by a medical specialist
orthotic serving to protect or to restore or improve function; pertaining to the use or application of an orthosis.
osteitis inflammation of bone
osteoarthritis a progressive disorder of the joints caused by gradual loss of cartilage and resulting in the development of bony spurs and cysts at the margins of the joints
osteochondroma A benign cartilaginous neoplasm that consists of a pedicle of normal bone covered with a rim of proliferating cartilage cells.
osteoclasis surgical fracture or refracture of bones
osteomalacia inadequate or delayed mineralization of osteoid in mature cortical and spongy bone
osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis refers to a bone infection, almost always caused by a bacteria. Over time, the result can be destruction of the bone itself.
osteonecrosis necrosis of a bone
osteopenia any decrease in bone mass below the normal.
osteoporosis bones lose an excessive amount of their protein and mineral sat_flash_1, particularly calcium. Over time, bone mass, and therefore bone strength, is decreased. As a result, bones become fragile and break easily
osteoprotic hip fracture a easily broken hip
osteorraphy fixation of fragments of bone with sutures or wires.
Paget's disease an extramammary counterpart of Paget's disease (2), usually involving the vulva, and sometimes other sites, as the perianal and axillary regions.
pathological fracture one due to weakening of the bone structure by pathologic processes, such as neoplasia, osteomalacia, or osteomyelitis
percutaneous vertebroplasty Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that strengthens spinal bones that have been damaged by cancer.
periostitis Inflammation of the periosteum.
podiatrist A physician who specializes in the medical care and treatment of the human foot.
prosthesis an artificial substitute for a missing body part, such as an arm, leg, eye, or tooth; used for functional or cosmetic reasons or both.
rheumatoid arthritis chronic autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints
rickets Rickets is a childhood condition caused by serious vitamin D deficiency. This lacking in vitamin D results in weak, soft bones, along with slowed growth and skeletal development
scoliosis Scoliosis is a side-to-side curvature of the spine.
spinal fracture fracture of the spinal cord
spondylolisthesis Forward displacement of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae over the vertebra below it or over the sacrum
spondylosis ankylosis of a vertebral joint
subluxation incomplete or partial dislocation
synovectomy excision of a synovial membrane
vertebrae Bones in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions of the body that make up the vertebral column
Compression fracture Compression fractures occur when the vertebrae collapse,

Mechanical Mixtures and Solutions

Question Answer
What are the two different kinds of particles in a mixture? Mechanical mixtures and solutions.
What is a mechanical mixture? A mixture with different parts you can see.
Where can you find everyday mechanical mixtures? In your closet, pencil case, dinner plate, on the playground and etc.
What is a solution? A mixture with different parts you can not see.
Why can you see different parts in a mechanical mixture? Particles in a mechanical mixture are not mixed evenly.
Why can't you see different parts in a solution? Particles in a solution are mixed together evenly.
What are some examples of solutions? Some examples are steel,seawater, milk and air.

Describing Weather

Variable Definition Measured by
air pressure the force that a column of air applies on the air or a surface below it barometer
wind the movement of air from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure anemometer
humidity the amount of water vapor in the air grams of water per cubic of air (g/m3)
relative humidity the amount of water vapor present in the air compared percentages
precipitation water, in liquid or solid form that falls from the atmosphere
clouds condensed water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere
fog a suspension of water droplets and ice crystals close to or on Earth's surface
air temperature the measure of the average kinetic energy of molecules in the air thermometer

Chapter 4 Test

Question Answer
Coiled up chains of DNA that carry instructions on how to make proteins Chromosomes
Structure found in plant cells that uses light energy, water and carbon dioxide to make glucose; photosynthesis happens here Chloroplast
Structurs inside cytoplasm that have their own specific job or function Organelle
Watery fluid inside the cell that organelles are suspended in Cytoplasm
Place where proteins are built; free floating or attached to ER Ribosomes
Control center for the cell; contains genetic information (DNA) Nucleus
A cell that has a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles Eukaryotic
Provides shape, protection and support for plan cells; made of cullulose Cell Wall
Breaks down sugar to make energy (ATP); power house of the cell Mitochondria
Responsible for digestion in the cell; destroys worn-out organelles, gets rid of wastes and protects cell from harmful particles Lysosome
Flexible cover around the cell that controls movement of materials into and out of the cell; separates cell from outside environment Cell Membrane
Makes and modifies proteins and lipids; part of cell's delivery system; helps break down materials that can harm the cell Endoplasmic Reticulum
Small sac that surrounds material to be movewd in or out of the cell Vesicle
Simple cells with no recognizable organelles (no nucleus) Prokaryotic
Modifies, sorts, and ships molecules that are made in the ER; post office of cell Golgi Complex
Surrounds the nucleus; substances pass in and out through pores Nuclear Membrane
Type of vesicle found in plant cells; can store water, food, and waste products; soome have digestive enzymes Vacuole
Found in animal cells; form spindle fibers to separate chromosomes during cel division (mitiosis) Centriole
What are the 3 parts of the cell theory? 1. All organisms are made up of one or more cells
2. The cell is the basic unit for all living things
3. All cells come from existing cells
What are 2 things that plant cells have that animal cells do not? Cell walls and chloroplasts
What are 2 things that animal cells have that plant cells do not? Lysosomes and centriols
What is one difference between animal and plant cells? Plant cells have large central vacuoles and animal cells have small central vacuoles
What is the basic unit of all living things? Cells
What are 3 things that all cells have in common? A cell membrane, organelles, and all cells come from existing cells
What does a eukaryotic cell have that a prokaryotic cell does not? A nucleus
Name two kinds of eukaryotes that have cell walls Bacteria and archaea
What is a cell? A cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of living things
Who discovered the first cell? Robert Hooke
What discription did he compare the cell to? Little rooms-cells
Single celled organisms or protists

Circulation Ch. 8

Question Answer
Movement of air masses are due to what 2 major factors? Uneven solar heating (depends on latitude)and Deflection due to the Coriolis effect
rising air at the equator && tropics carries a lot of vapor which is caused by? Moisture
Molecule by molecule (solids, liquids, gases) Conduction
By mass motion in a fluid (gas or liquid) Convection
either by particles (photons) or waves Radiation
What is the main source of Energy for the oceans and atmosphere of Earth? Solar Heating
Transfer of heat from regions of greater heating at the EQUATOR to LESSER HEATING at the POLES drive movement of what? air and water control our seasons and control our weather.
What does the amount of heat (radiation) depend on? the position of the sun at the horizon
What is the Earths axis of rotation tilted to? 23.5 relative to its orbits around the sun
In December, the northern hemisphere is tilted away from? the Sun, so it gets less heat input.
In June, the northern hemisphere is tilted towards? towards the Sun, so it gets more heat input.
The Tilt determines our? Seasons
the Earth’s surface takes time to absorb the heat and warm, especially the oceans due to high heat capacity. Thermal inertia
On average, the Earth re-radiates as much heat in as it gets from the Sun. Heat In >>> Earth >>> Heat out
Net surplus at the equator and a deficit at the poles? Heat transfers
How does heat transfer winds and ocean current
Why does hot air rise? molecules in warm air are farther apart because of higher vibration energy (temperature), so density is less hot!
Air pressure is a fancy word for? weight of the column of air above you
As air rises pressure decreases
As pressure decreases air expands
it takes energy for the air molecules to move farther apart, in which energy has to come from the? vibrational energy molecules= tempature
Adiabatic is when there is no heat in or out which then is cooling; air sinking
Adiabatic heating warming undergoes
Covection is formed when air cools. (Convection is clouds)
Cold Air holds less moisture
The ocean at the equator is warmer, thus water is evaporating and the rising air has more water vapor, thus causes humiditiy
Dry air is more dense then humid air
three cells per hemisphere Hadley Cell, Ferrell Cell, Polar Cell
Hadley Cell tropical latitudes (0-30 N or S)
Ferrel Cell mid latitudes (30-60 N or S)
Polar Cell Polar high latitudes (60-90 N or S)
Doldrums or Intertropical Convergence Zone is? equatorial area where air moves vertically upward
Where can Intertropical Convergence Zones or Doldrums be found at? low atmospheric pressure regions.. Surface winds are WEAK, rainy weather, thunderstorms
Jet Stream High altitude winds that form between cells- useful for pilots- westerly winds across US
Oceans and atmosphere are in continuous contact
Movement of air masses in the atmosphere is due to mainly what 2 major factors? Uneven solar heating (depends on latitude) and deflection due to the Cariolis effect
The intensity of the Coriolis Effect increases with latitude, thus the STRONGEST are at the POLES and the WEAKEST are at the EQUATOR
N. hemisphere rotates clockwise
S. Hemisphere rotates anticlockwise
2/3 of heat transfer to poles occurs by air currents
Average wind directions are set by what two processes? uneven solar heating and Cariolis effect
Storms are powered by solar energy
Extra tropical cyclone when air masses collide between Ferrel and Polar cells
Tropical Cyclone when a warm humid air mass aqcuires energy from warm water as it passes over. (forms in tropical regions)
water warmer then 26 C warm and humid air rise and produces rain
air IN cyclone storms turns in opposite direction to Cariolois
extratropical cyclones usually develop in winter when temp differences across the polar front are LARGE
Nor Easters examples of extratropical cyclones. Atlantic Ocean.. North America