Human organ systems and functions

Question Answer
circulatory carries needed materials to the body cells; carries wastes away from body cells
digestive takes food into the body, breaks food down, and absorbs the digested materials
endocrine controls many body processes (such as intake of sugar by cells) by means of chemicals
excretory removes wastes
immune fights diseases
muscular enables the body to move; moves food through t he digestive system; keeps the heart beating
nervous detects and interprets information from the environment outside the body and from within the body; controls most body functions
reproductive produces sex cells that can unite with other sex cells to create offspring; controls male and female characteristics
respiratory takes oxygen into the body and eliminates carbon dioxide
skeletal supports the body, protects it, and works with muscles to allow movement; makes blood cells and stores some materials
skin protects the body, keeps water inside the body, and helps regulate body temperature

Energy Transfer & Transformation

Question Answer
Energy The ability to do Work.
Kinetic Energy The energy an object has when it's in motion.
Law of Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only be transferred or transformed.
Potential Energy The stored energy in an object that is at rest.
Volcanoes and Geysers are examples of which Form of Energy? Geothermal
What common device, found in TV Remotes and Smoke Detectors, is an example of Chemical Energy? A Battery
Forms of Energy can be _____________ or _______________. Potential or Kinetic
Elastic, Spring and Gravitational are Forms of _____________ Energy Potential
Stored Energy is called _____________ Energy. Potential
Moving Energy is called _____________ Energy. Kinetic
Convection, Conduction and Radiation are Forms of _____________ Energy. Thermal/Heat

Chapter 2 Electric Charges and Current

Question Answer
electric field the electric force that extends from every charged particle
static electricity the buildup of charges on an object
friction the transfer of electrons from one object to another by rubbing
conduction the transfer of electrons from a charged object to another by direct contact
induction the movement of electrons to one part of an object by the electric field of another object
static discharge the loss of static electricity as electric charges move off an object
electroscope an instrument that can detect the presence of electric charges, but cannot determine the type of charge
electrical potential the potential energy per unit of electric charge
potential difference the difference in electrical potential between two places
voltage the unit of measure of potential difference
voltage source creates a potential difference in an electric circuit; batteries and generators
electrical resistence the opposition to the flow of charges
voltmeter a device that measures potential difference or voltage
ammeter a device that measures current
Ohm's Law a conductor or any other device that has a constant resistance regardless of the voltage
series circuit all the parts of the circuit are connected one after another; only one path for electricity to follow
parallel circuit different parts of the circuit are on separate branches; more than one path for current to take
short circuit a connection that allows current to take an unintended path
third prong a round prong of a plug that connects the metal shell of an appliance to the ground wire of a building
grounded electrical systems lead charges from a circuit into the ground
lightning rod a metal rod mounted on a building in order to protect a building from lightning
fuse a device that contains a thin strip of metal that will melt if too much current flows through it
circuit breaker a safety device that uses an electromagnet to shut off the circuit when the current gets too high
conservation of charge electrons are transferred from one location to another; charges are not created or destroyed

From Bacteria to Plants Ch 2

Question Answer
virus a small, nonliving particle that invades and then reproduces inside a living cell
host a living thing that provides a source of energy for a virus or an organism
parasites organisms that live on or in a host and cause harm to the host
bacteriophage a virus that infects bacteria
active virus a virus that immediately takes over the host cell's functions
hidden virus a virus that invades a cell, but remains inactive for awhile
cytoplasm the gel-like region inside a cell
ribosomes chemical factories inside cells where proteins are produced
flagellum a long, whiplike structure that extends out through the cell membrane and cell wall; used for movement
archaebacteria bacteria that live in extreme environments
eubacteria bacteria that live everywhere but extreme environments
binary fission a process in which one cell divides to form two identical cells
asexual reproduction a reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent
sexual reproduction two parents combine their genetic material to produce a new organism which differs from both parents
conjugation one bacterium transfers some of its genetic material into another bacterial cell through a thin, threadlike bridge that joins the two cells
respiration the process of breaking down food to release its energy
endospore a small, rounded, thick-walled resting cell that forms inside a bacterial cell when conditions become unfavorable for the bacteria
decomposer organism that breaks down large chemicals in dead organisms into small chemicals
infectious diseases illnesses that pass from one organism to another
toxin a poison
antibiotic a chemical that can kill bacteria without harming a person's cells

Physical growth

Question Answer
Child brain is __% of adult brain weight by 6 years 90%
How do brains become bigger? (1) Because of more neurons or (2) Because neurons grow larger or (3) because neurons increase their connections?? (2) and (3). NOT (1)
What is this defining? "growth of axonal and dendritic fibres" Synaptogenesis
Does the process of synaptognesis increase or decline as we get older? Declines
Look at notes at Curvilinear Trend in Synaptic Density. What does it show? That when we are younger and when we are older we have less synaptic density
An old idea about the brain is that brain circuitry(connections) is pre-determined by DNA. What is the new idea for this? = That brain connections are determined through….? Through interaction with the world – our experience
In the brain there is an initial ______production of synapses and this gives us a kind of readiness to learn. The brain has been primed for learning overproduction
So initially our brains have an overproduction of synapses and then…..this experience guides the development of the brain because certain synapses are p__________ and others are s_______________ pruned, strengthens
Another example of how experience effects the brain…the brain needs to be exposed to certain kinds of input to be able to eventually produce that input. ….
Cortisol production interferes with the neural/brains development. Cortisol is a h__________. Children who receive nurturing care in their first year are (less or more?) likely to respond to minor stresses by producing _________. less, cotrisol
So production of cortisol (from nurturing care) provides a form of protection – as it is helping them cope with ______ later in life stress
At age two, a childs brain has twice as many synapses as an adult brain. True or false? False, its actually at age three
The number of synapses we have then stays steady for the next decade (10years) so some synapses __________ and others _________ but the overall number holds steady increase, decrease
There are fewer changes in more hard-wired areas of the brain such as the brain stem – this is one of the first areas to evolve with evolution ….
Where do the most dramatic changes in synapse development take place? In the cerebral cortex
What is this referring to? "getting rid of synapses that are not helpful" Synaptic pruning
There is an incredible rate of synaptic pruning during the _________ decade of life second
An old idea about the brain is that experiences before 3 years have limited impact. What is the new idea? That early experiences do influence the brain – the architecture of the brain and the nature and extent of adult capabilities.
Years ago in Romani, many children were neglected, physically and sexually abused etc. Years later their brain scans were compared with normal children's. A PET scan of child at 9.5 years shows ____ activity of a normal child. less
An old idea about the brain is that brain development is linear, slowly progressing towards adulthood. What is the new idea for this? And why does this mean we need a good environment when younger. That brain development is non-linear – there are prime times for acquiring difference kinds of knowledge – early childhood being the biggest prime time. So therefore we need a good environment at that point.
Look at graph in notes to answer the following question…in the visual cortex there is a peak in synapse density at ____ year old and in the prefrontal cortex there is a peak at _____ years old one, four
In the first year of life there is major development in the _______ cortex (which controls body movement), in the v______ cortex and in the hippocampus (important for m_________) motor, visual, memory
Which part of the brain has slower development? And which part of the brain has possibly even later development? The prefrontal cortex, the frontal cortex
What is the timing of formation of myelination in different areas? First occurs in sensory cortex –> then motor cortex –> then frontal cortex
Myelination is not complete until adolescents and possible even early adulthood! true or false? True
Why is myelination important? Because it speeds up the transmission of information in the brain
What is the extreme illness caused by lack of myelination? Multiple Sclerosis
An old idea of the brain is that a toddler's brain is much less active than the brain of a university student. What is the new idea for this? By the time children are 3 years old, their brains are twice as active as those of adults. Activity levels drop during adolescence because we are losing synapses.
Children are primed for learning. Read over the reasons why this is…
Glucose metabolic rate increases until about 9 years if age and then begins to decline in adulthood in the _________ decade of life second
What three things does the brain need? Nourishment, Care and Surroundings (stimulation – new things, new language etc)
Study the feedback loop diagram in notes ….
Malnutrition directly effects brain development. What else does malnutrition do? Read and write out study notes …..
Study the graph with 'Brain and Weight Across the Lifespan'
The physical changes that take place during adolescence/puberty are controlled by the h___________? Hypothalamus
The timing of puberty is dependent on things such as h_______(genes), g______ and n__________ heredity, gender, nutrition
Who goes through puberty earlier – girls or boys? girls
Girls and boys reach puberty before they used to. True or false? True
What is one of the key components that seem to be involved in the way puberty is hitting children earlier? Nutrition – we are supplied with more nutrition than we used to be years ago – better acces to meat and milk products
The peak of puberty being 12 years old is for what gender? And the peak being 14 to 15 years old is for what gender? Girls, Boys
Study the various subcomponents of timing of puberty …..
What does Menarche refer to? Getting your period
The adolescent brain continues to develop until 22-25 years old. The areas of the greatest development during adolescence are the pre_______ cortex, C________ C______ and the c___________ Prefrontal cortex, Corpus Callosum and the Cerebellum
Adolescence is a time of "fewer but ______" neural connections. faster

Weathering and Erosion

Question Answer
What is the Wentworth Scale?
What are the four characterictics we use to analyze sand particles?
What does it mean when you are asked the of the sand?
What is a dune?
What is a canyon?
What is a plateau?
Define erosion and name four types of erosion.
There are three different kinds of Chemical Erosion. Name them and descrribe what they are.
There are five different kinds of Physical Erosion. Name at least three.
What is deposition?
Draw the rock cycle.


Term Definition
What is the wentworth scale? Particle size or grain size refers to the diameter of a grain of granular material such as sediment or the lithified particles.
What are the four characteristics we use to analyze sand particles? 1 Composition; 2 Environments; 3 Study; 4 Uses
What does it mean when you are asked the source of the sand? It means they are trying to saye were does sand come from.
What is a dune?

Environmental Ecology- Food, Soil, & Pest Management

Term Definition
Food Security 1/6 people in developing countries facing food insecurity in form of malnutrition and chronic hunger.
Macronutrients Protein, carbs, fats (lipids)
Micronutrients Vitamins/minerals
Food Production Systems 1. Croplands
2. Rangeland/Pastures
3. Ocean fisheries
Croplands Responsible for 77% of worlds food (grains, wheat, rice corn)- feeds 2/3 of world's population. Responsible for 47% of all calories- measure of energy value of food in terms of heat output
Rangeland/pastures Meat production- 16% of world's food production
Ocean fisheries 7% of world's food production.
Aquaculture- fresh water pond production of fish (catfish, tilapia, freshwater shrimp)
Topsoil 6-8 inches- most production (renewable natural resource, but very slow 10-100 years) wind/water erosion- soil runoff- natural/human activities, vegetation removal, strip mining
Effects: loss of soil fertility, increased water pollution
Irrigation Importing fresh water to grow crops. 20% of cropland production (1/5) in world is irrigate- produces 45% of world's food
Problem: salinization-build up of thin layers of salt; stunted crop growth, low crop yields, kills plants
Reduce Soil Erosion 1. No-till Cultivation- seeds injected underground (hi-tech)
2. Terracing- (stair-step)
3. Contour planting- (strip-cropping)
4. Alley Cropping
5. Windbreaks
Restore Soil Fertility 1. Use of inorganic fertilizers
2. Use of organic fertilizers (animal manure)
3. Composting small scale
1950's Green Revolution Period in time wen we developed a hi-tech agricultural output- inorganic fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, irrigation process, increase crop yield, multiple cropping
GMO Genetically modified organisms (grains, wheat, corn, rice) increased crop yield, herbicide resistance (round-up ready) increased cancer rate, increase fertility rate- male and female, allergies
Meat Production 1. Grazing livestock (grass feed)- natural 50%
2.Industrialized (factory like)- grains, less environmentally and economically sound- must feed=$ & energy consumption & waste pollution
Pest Any species that interfere with human welfare by competing with us for
1. Food supplies
2. Destroy buildings/materials (termites)
3. Spread disease (vectors)
4. Destroy ecosystem
Pesticide Types 1. Man-made synthetic- (50x greater)
2. Natural pesticides- pansies, marigold, garlic, & rosemary
Man-Made Synthetic Pesticide Advantages 1. Saves human lives
2. Increased food supplies
3. Increased farmer profits
4. Work faster
5. Health risks lowered (if properly used)
6. Newer pesticides safer
Man-Made Synthetic Pesticide Disadvantages 1. Genetic resistance by pests
2. Financial treadmill
3. Kills natural predators (bats, birds)
4. Can pollute environment
5. Can kill wildlife
6. Endangered/threatened species
7. Human health- children (organ shortage- liver)
Pest Control Alternatives (Larger Scale) 1. Fool pests- rotating crops & planting time
2. Homes for pest enemies (lizards)
3. Genetic resistance for crops
4. Natural Enemies (Parasites, Viruses, bacteria)
5. Use hot scalding water spray
6. Use hormones- disrupt life cycles of pests
7. Pher

Environmental Ecology- Human Population and Urbanization

Term Definition
Death Rate Number of deaths per 1000 people
Total Fertility Rate Avg. number of children born to women during reproductive years. (Globally 2.7, developing 2.9)
>60 Senior Citizens 1. Rapid Pop. Decline 2. Economic Problems a. Lower gov't budget b. Med. probs (Medicare-$) (Medicade >65) c. Social Security 3. Social Problem a. Experienced labor and technical support
Reasons for Trend 1. Better food/nutrient sources 2. Good medical/support services 3. Improved sanitation 4. Improved water supplies 5. Life expectancy- 68, 77
World Population 7+ Billion
Trends of Urbanization 1. Number and sizes of urban population increasing (79% US pop, 51% world) 2. Faster in developing countries 3. Poverty becoming more urbanized 4. Urban sprawl takes up countryside
Trend In US rapid population growth is primarly due to lower death rates than increased birth rate.
Factors and decisions that affect birth rate 1. Children part of workforce- generate $ 2. Cost of raising & edu children- $ 3. Availability of pension systems 4. Urbanization- dev of family planning services 5. Edu & Emp opp for women 6. Age at marriage 7. Legal abortions 8. Rel beliefs/trad
Urbanization Advantages 1. Centers of Economic, Educational, Technological, and Employment development
Factors on why people move areas 1. Religious Persecution 2. Conflicts & Wars 3. Political Reasons 4. Environmental/Pollution
Population Growth Trends of Developing Countries 1. Show growth rate trends tend to decline. a. Fam. Planning services b. Women edu & workplace c. China- One Policy, gov't intervention Conquences- Lack of scientists & engineers, lack of financial capital, large debts to developed countries
Trend: Infant Mortality Best measure of quality of life in a nation
U.S. Population Trends 1900- 76 M 2007- 302 M 2009- 307+ M 2050- 439 M 2180- 571 M
Population Change (Births + Immigration)-(Deaths + Emigration) geographically 1. China 1.6B 2. India 1.1B 3. USA 307M
Baby Boom Age 1946-1964 1945 WWII ended Represents 36% of US population
Population Age Structure Distrubution of males and females according to age groups >60 senior citizens (36%) <15 youth (27%)
Birth Rate Number of live births/1000 women
Demographics The study of human population trends
Replacement Level Fertility Rate Number of children born to a woman during her lifetime
Urbanization Movements of populations to edges of cities