Chapter 4, 5, 6 & 8 review for Exam 2

Term Definition
Disaccharides Pairs of Monosaccharides
-Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose
Maltose 2 glucose units
Sucrose glucose & frutose
Lactose galactose & glucose
Condensation links two monosaccharides together
hydrolisis Breaks a disaccharide in two
Polysaccharides Generally composed of glucose units: glycogen & starch
Glycogen -Storage form of energy in body
-found mostly in liver & muscle
Starch -Storage form of energy in plants
-2 forms: amylopectin & amylose
Small intestine -mostly carbohydrate digestion
-pancreatic amylase
-specific disaccharide enzymes
Specific disaccharide enzymes maltase, sucrase, lactase
Large intestine soluble fibers fermented
Carbohydrate metabolism -glucose most critical for energy use
-Can store glucose as glycogen in liver & muscle
-Ketone bodies made
-use glucose to make fat: unlimited production & storage
Liver Storage -condensation into glycogen
-hydrolysis for release of glucose when needed
muscle storage -glycogen stored, but only used by that specific muscle
Ketone bodies -made from fat fragments
-occurs when not enough carbohydrates
-can be used for energy by most tissues
Ketosis -disturbs acid-base balance, since acidic when production exceeds use
-Carbohydrates needed for protein sparing & prevention of ketosis
Consistency of Blood Glucose -must have steady supply to blood stream
-blood glucose homeostasis
-glucagon & epinephrine
-balancing within normal range
Blood Glucose Levels Too Low: dizzy & weak
Too High: Fatigue
Blood glucose homeostasis Insulin: glucose from blood into cells
Glucagon & epinephrine brings glucose out from glycogen storage
Balancing within normal range balancing meals at regular intervals
Diabetes Type 1, Type 2, "Pre-Diabetes"
Type 1 no insulin
Type 2 -insulin not effective
-Fasting blood glucose > or = 126mg/100 ml
"Pre-Diabetes" Fasting Blood Glucose level 100-125mg/100 ml
Health Effects of Starch & Fibers -Diabetes:reduce glucose surges
-GI Health: reduce damage & ample fluids improve elimination
-Weight management: feeling of fullness
Effects of Starch & Fiber on Cancer -Dietary fiber & colon cancer have inverse relationship
-Source of dietary fiber:veg., fruit & whole grains & provides phytochemicals
-Preventing Colon cancer: Diluting, binding, and removing carcinogens + Bacterial fermentation: reduces inflammation

Dietary fiber recommendation -FDA: DV set at 25 grams/day
-USDA: DRI set at 25-35 grams/day
-No UL set, since generally no adverse effects of high levels upon healthy people
Fatty Acids -often named an omega number
-Omega number is the number of carbons starting at methyl end
-most common 18 carbons
Omegas -Omega 3: linolenic acid
-Omega 6: Linoleic acid
-Omega 9: Oleic acid
Triglycerides -glycerol backbone
-three fatty acids
-Formed via series of condensation reactions
-usually contain mixture of fatty acids
Effect of degrees of unsaturation Firmness & Stability
Firmness -Polyunsaturated fats: soft
-Saturated fats: hard
-Length of carbon chain: shorter is softer
Stability -oxidation and spoilage of fats
-More unsaturation, more risk of spoilage
-Can protect by reducing contact with light, air and heat
Mostly Saturated Fatty Acids -Animal fats & tropical oils: Coconut oil, butter, beef tallow, palm oil & lards

Monosaturated Fatty Acids -Some Veg. Oils: Olive Oil, Canola Oil, peanut oil, safflower oil
Polysaturated Fatty Acids -Many Veg. oils: Flaxseed, walnut, sunflower, corn, soybean, cotton seed
Phospholipids -solubility in fat & water
-Emulsifiers in food industry: used in mayonnaise and candy bars
-Lecithin: most common (see Fig. 5-9)
-Food sources: eggs, soybeans
-Bio role: part of cell membrane (Fig. 5-10)
Sterols -Food Source: Cholesterol in animal foods & Plant sterols like soybeans + added to food like margarine
-Body compounds made from cholesterol: e.g.; vitamin D
-Found in cell membranes
Lipid Digestion – Small intestine:
-Cholecystokinin (CCK):Gall bladder releases bile & Bile acts as emulsifier
-Pancreatic lipase
-Hydrolysis:Triglycerides and phospholipids
-Bile use can affect blood cholesterol levels
Lipid transport -Chylomicrons
-Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL)
-Low-density lipoproteins (LDL)
-High-density lipoproteins (HDL)
Chylomicrons -largest & least dense
-Diet derived lipids
-Liver removes remnants from blood
Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) -made in liver
-lipids from diets & liver synthesis
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) -mostly brings cholesterol to cells
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) -removes cholesterol from cells
-carry cholesterol to liver for recycling
-anti-inflammatory properties
Role of Triglycerides -provide cells with energy: 9 kcals per gram, virtually unlimited ability to store fat energy in body
-Adipose tissue: storage
-Skin insulation, shock absorption & cell membrane composition
Essential Fatty Acids -Omega 6: most veg. oils
-Omega 3: mostly fish, DHA, EPA, Eicosanoid(hormones)
-Fatty Acids deficiencies
Recommended intake of fat 1. DRI & Dietary guidelines
-Diet low in saturated and trans fat
-Diet low in cholesterol
-20 to 35 percent of daily energy from fat
2. Daily Values (DV) on food labels
-Fat (30%); Saturated and trans fat combined (10%) and cholesterol (300 mg)
guidelines for groceries 1. Fat replacers
-May be derived from fat, carbohydrate or protein, Ex: Olestra
2. Read Food Labels
-Total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol
-Compare products
-% Daily Value vs. % kcalories from fat
Proteins -more complex than carbohydrates or fats
-20 amino acids
-peptides bonds link amino acids
20 amino acids -different characteristics
-essential amino acids
-nonessential amino acids
Protein Digestion 1.Mouth: Crushed & moistened
-Hydrochloric acid denatures proteins
-Pepsinogen to pepsin (due to HCl)
3.Small Intestine
-Hydrolysis reactions: pancreatic enzymes
-Peptidase enzymes: breakdown of small chains of aa’s
Role of Proteins 1. Growth & maintenance
5. Transporters for lipids, vitamins, ect.

Growth & maintenance -Building blocks for most body structures ex: Collagen
-Replacement of dead or damaged cells
Enzymes -Break down, build up, and transform substances
-Catalyst for many reactions

Hormones -messenger for molecules
-transported in blood to target tissues
Energy -Starvation & insufficient carbohydrate intake may result in use of protein for energy
Protein Metabolism Excreting Urea:
-Liver releases urea into blood: kidney filters urea out of blood
-Protein intake & urea production: water consumption necessary
Protein Quality -Digestibility
-Amino Acid Consumption
-Reference protein
-High Quality proteins
-Complementary proteins
Digestibility -Animal proteins are high (90-99%)
-Plant proteins usually lower (70-90%)
Amino Acid Consumption -essential amino acid levels are critical
-generally composition compared to reference protein
-Limiting amino acids: lowest level of a particular essential amino acids compared to reference protein
Reference proteins -amount of essential amino acids needed by pre-school age children
High-quality proteins -Animal proteins
-Plant proteins: none except soybean, quinoa
Complementary Proteins -low quality proteins combined to provide adequate levels of essential amino acids
Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) -Marasmus
Marasmus -Chronic PEM
-Children 8-16 months: poverty & "little old people"
-Impaired growth, wasting of muscles, impaired brain development, lower body temperature
-digestion & absorption
Kwashiorkor -Acute PEM
-Children 18 months to 2 years
-Develops rapidly
-Edema, fatty liver, inflammation, infections, skin and hair changes
-Marasmus-Kwashiorkor mix: edema and wasting
Health Effects of protein (High protein Diet) -Heart Disease:animal protein intake may be cause
-Cancer:Protein rich diet not shown to be a problem but Red meat linked to colon cancer incidence
-Kidney Disease:Accl of kidney deterioration & High levels of urea disposal
-Weight contr
Osteoporosis -Calcium excretion increases
-Ideal ratio has not been determined
-Animal protein intake suggested by some research to result in greater bone loss
Recommended Intakes of Protein 1. Needed Dietary protein
-Source of essential amino acids & Practical source of nitrogen
2. AMDR=10 to 35 percent of daily energy intake
3.RDA:Adults = 0.8 grams/kg of body weight/day
-Presumes adequate energy is consumed
Protein Supplements -muscle work builds muscles
-may be helpful if protein intake is low
Amino Acid Supplements -Potential risks associated with intake: May prevent the use of other amino acids
-Branched-chain aa’s not helpful

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