Diseases in Environmental Health

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Bacillus cerus description/sources A soil organism and spore forming facultative. It is commonly found in raw vegetables, dried processed foods, grains and particularly rice.
Bacillus cerus symptoms This disease is classified as an INTOXICATION through enterotoxin. Causes gastrointestinal disorder with 2 types of symptoms 1-Diarrhea and 2-Emetic.
Diarrhea Bacillus cerus Is heat labile, causes nausea, watery diarrhea, abdominal pain and rectal spasm. Onset can range from 6-16 hours with duration of 12-24 hours.
Emetic Bacillus cerus Vomiting type is heat stable. Causes acute attacks of vomiting. Can be caused by cooked rice. Onset time 15 minutes to 11 hours, lasts from 1 to 5 hours.
Hepatitis A AKA Infectious Hepatitis: enterovirus with incubation period 15-50 days (average 25-30 days). Mode of transmission FECAL ORAL ROUTE. Common vehicle is contaminated water and food.
Hepatitis B AKA Serum Hepatitis: transmitted by blood products of infected hypodemic needles. Incubation 45-160 days (average 60-90 days) Can be asymptomatic unless a liver function test is performed, acute liver failure is a result.
Hepatitis C AKA Serum Hepatitis: from blood products, transfusions and sharing of dirty syringes. Precutaneous inoculations of human blood, plasma, serum, or other blood products. Incubation 45-160 days (average 60-90). 70% of liver transplants due to this infection
Vibrio cholera FECAL-ORAL ROUTE, man is reservoir. Contracted by ingestion of contaminated water (feces or vomitus) and contaminated food. Incubation: a few hours to 5 days (average 2-3 days) Lasts up to 7 days. Causes vomiting, watery diarrhea, severe dehydration.
Bacillus anthracis spore forming bacteria that can survive very dry conditions for years. Infected by inhalation of spores from ground or hides of dead animal carcasses, hair products (sheep wool). Improperly cooked meat. Begins as upper respiratory infection, death follows
INANIMATE Free living in soil or water: Inanimate objects-door knobs, infected drinking glass. Vehicle usually involve a vector and a fomite, the means of infection.
Channels of infection Dermal, oral, inhalation, eye, injection
Most common route of infection Respiratory: nasal passages, windpipe and bronchi, bronchial tubes, alveoli
Second most common route of infection Fecal-oral route. Organisms like Shigella, Cholera, Ascaris, and Amebiasis.
Passive Immunity Received from others or another source
i.e. Naturally: maternal transfer (placenta) of antibodies
Aquired: inoculation of intibodies or immune serum (artificial)
Active Immunity Formed by body that builds the immunity
Natural: from infection
Acquired: inoculation of killed agent or its products

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