Environmental Ecology- Food, Soil, & Pest Management

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Term Definition
Food Security 1/6 people in developing countries facing food insecurity in form of malnutrition and chronic hunger.
Macronutrients Protein, carbs, fats (lipids)
Micronutrients Vitamins/minerals
Food Production Systems 1. Croplands
2. Rangeland/Pastures
3. Ocean fisheries
Croplands Responsible for 77% of worlds food (grains, wheat, rice corn)- feeds 2/3 of world's population. Responsible for 47% of all calories- measure of energy value of food in terms of heat output
Rangeland/pastures Meat production- 16% of world's food production
Ocean fisheries 7% of world's food production.
Aquaculture- fresh water pond production of fish (catfish, tilapia, freshwater shrimp)
Topsoil 6-8 inches- most production (renewable natural resource, but very slow 10-100 years) wind/water erosion- soil runoff- natural/human activities, vegetation removal, strip mining
Effects: loss of soil fertility, increased water pollution
Irrigation Importing fresh water to grow crops. 20% of cropland production (1/5) in world is irrigate- produces 45% of world's food
Problem: salinization-build up of thin layers of salt; stunted crop growth, low crop yields, kills plants
Reduce Soil Erosion 1. No-till Cultivation- seeds injected underground (hi-tech)
2. Terracing- (stair-step)
3. Contour planting- (strip-cropping)
4. Alley Cropping
5. Windbreaks
Restore Soil Fertility 1. Use of inorganic fertilizers
2. Use of organic fertilizers (animal manure)
3. Composting small scale
1950's Green Revolution Period in time wen we developed a hi-tech agricultural output- inorganic fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, irrigation process, increase crop yield, multiple cropping
GMO Genetically modified organisms (grains, wheat, corn, rice) increased crop yield, herbicide resistance (round-up ready) increased cancer rate, increase fertility rate- male and female, allergies
Meat Production 1. Grazing livestock (grass feed)- natural 50%
2.Industrialized (factory like)- grains, less environmentally and economically sound- must feed=$ & energy consumption & waste pollution
Pest Any species that interfere with human welfare by competing with us for
1. Food supplies
2. Destroy buildings/materials (termites)
3. Spread disease (vectors)
4. Destroy ecosystem
Pesticide Types 1. Man-made synthetic- (50x greater)
2. Natural pesticides- pansies, marigold, garlic, & rosemary
Man-Made Synthetic Pesticide Advantages 1. Saves human lives
2. Increased food supplies
3. Increased farmer profits
4. Work faster
5. Health risks lowered (if properly used)
6. Newer pesticides safer
Man-Made Synthetic Pesticide Disadvantages 1. Genetic resistance by pests
2. Financial treadmill
3. Kills natural predators (bats, birds)
4. Can pollute environment
5. Can kill wildlife
6. Endangered/threatened species
7. Human health- children (organ shortage- liver)
Pest Control Alternatives (Larger Scale) 1. Fool pests- rotating crops & planting time
2. Homes for pest enemies (lizards)
3. Genetic resistance for crops
4. Natural Enemies (Parasites, Viruses, bacteria)
5. Use hot scalding water spray
6. Use hormones- disrupt life cycles of pests
7. Pher

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