Environmental Ecology- Human Population and Urbanization

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Term Definition
Death Rate Number of deaths per 1000 people
Total Fertility Rate Avg. number of children born to women during reproductive years. (Globally 2.7, developing 2.9)
>60 Senior Citizens 1. Rapid Pop. Decline 2. Economic Problems a. Lower gov't budget b. Med. probs (Medicare-$) (Medicade >65) c. Social Security 3. Social Problem a. Experienced labor and technical support
Reasons for Trend 1. Better food/nutrient sources 2. Good medical/support services 3. Improved sanitation 4. Improved water supplies 5. Life expectancy- 68, 77
World Population 7+ Billion
Trends of Urbanization 1. Number and sizes of urban population increasing (79% US pop, 51% world) 2. Faster in developing countries 3. Poverty becoming more urbanized 4. Urban sprawl takes up countryside
Trend In US rapid population growth is primarly due to lower death rates than increased birth rate.
Factors and decisions that affect birth rate 1. Children part of workforce- generate $ 2. Cost of raising & edu children- $ 3. Availability of pension systems 4. Urbanization- dev of family planning services 5. Edu & Emp opp for women 6. Age at marriage 7. Legal abortions 8. Rel beliefs/trad
Urbanization Advantages 1. Centers of Economic, Educational, Technological, and Employment development
Factors on why people move areas 1. Religious Persecution 2. Conflicts & Wars 3. Political Reasons 4. Environmental/Pollution
Population Growth Trends of Developing Countries 1. Show growth rate trends tend to decline. a. Fam. Planning services b. Women edu & workplace c. China- One Policy, gov't intervention Conquences- Lack of scientists & engineers, lack of financial capital, large debts to developed countries
Trend: Infant Mortality Best measure of quality of life in a nation
U.S. Population Trends 1900- 76 M 2007- 302 M 2009- 307+ M 2050- 439 M 2180- 571 M
Population Change (Births + Immigration)-(Deaths + Emigration) geographically 1. China 1.6B 2. India 1.1B 3. USA 307M
Baby Boom Age 1946-1964 1945 WWII ended Represents 36% of US population
Population Age Structure Distrubution of males and females according to age groups >60 senior citizens (36%) <15 youth (27%)
Birth Rate Number of live births/1000 women
Demographics The study of human population trends
Replacement Level Fertility Rate Number of children born to a woman during her lifetime
Urbanization Movements of populations to edges of cities

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