Extras, part 1– Sociology review

Credentialism The belief that education is a screening process for the elite
Egalitarian An authority structure in which the authority is equally divided between the mother and father or equally between parents and children.
Birth rate The number of live births per thousand people in a year.
Tracking A way of grouping students according to their ability to further the status quo.
Legitimate power Power that is used by people in positions of proper authority.
Illegitimate power Power used by people not in proper positions of authority. Relies on coercion.
Economic rationality The type of economic motivation that values change, progress, invention, practicality, and development.
Institutions The collection of norms, roles, and values into organized ways of living.
Sick-role Defined by Talcott Parsons. States that sick persons are not responsible for their conditions and are exempt from social responsibilities, but that sick persons have responsibilities such as trying to get well and seek and comply with medical help.
Social integration The way in which education prepared people for adult roles through occupational training.
Holistic health A belief that a person's well-being consists of interconnectedness and balance between physical, mental, and spiritual aspects of one's being.
Latent functions Unintended consequences.
The family of procreation This family usually occurs in adulthood and is created when people form their own social groups through adoption or procreation.
Infant mortality rate The annual number of deaths in children less than one year old per 1000 live births.
Net migration rate The difference between the number of people entering an area (immigrants) and the number of people leaving and area (emigrants) per 1000 people.
Human ecology An academic discipline that views human communities and populations as part of the ecosystem on earth.
Urbanization The concentration of humanity into cities.
The id of society represents… …basic drives such as reproduction and food.
The ego of society represents… …individuality present among members and mediates between the id and superego.
The superego of society represents… …society's expectations and functions to censor the id.
Population density The measurement of number of persons per unit area or volume.
Life expectancy The number of years which an individual can expect to live with current mortality rates.
Census The process of obtaining information about every member of a particular society.
Urban sprawl The rapid, expansive growth of a large metropolitan area.
Suburbanization A shift in the residential areas outward from the downtown areas.
Rural exodus The term used to describe migratory patterns that usually occur in a region following developments in which fewer people are needed to bring the same amount of agricultural production to an area.
Urban exodus A phenomenon that can occur when people move from urban to rural areas and have unrealistic expectations of the serviced provided in the area or have difficulty adjusting to and fitting in with the local culture.
The demographic theory States that, as a country becomes more industrialized, birth and death rates will eventually become lower.
Urban growth The rate at which and urban population and area increases over a certain time period relative to the area's size and population at the beginning of that time period.
Vital statistics Data recorded by the government concerning the birth and death of people within the government's control.
Crude death rate The annual number of deaths per 1000 people.
Total fertility rate The number of live births per woman who completes her reproductive life at current age-specific fertility rates.
Role Homogenity Often present in rural societies. Means that one person performs many roles.
General fertility rate The number of births per 1000 women of childbearing age (15 to 44) in a year.
Social order The social mechanism that regulate individual or group behavior and adherence to norms and that designate processes of social control. Depends on members of a society knowing and doing what is expected of them. Prevents anarchy from occurring.
Social change A considerable adjustment in patterns of social and cultural structure that is reflected in social behavior.
Negative sanctions Become necessary when deviance has occurred, indicating that social control has failed.
Cultural lag A term coined by Ogburn. Describes the way that material culture tends to change more quickly than nonmaterial culture.
Pre-operational (age 2 to 6) Children in this stage use language and symbols, can separate fantasy from reality, and begin to give meaning to their world.
Social structure Describes the ways in which individual's interactions in a society are arranged to form networks.
Role-distance The term used to describe the gap existing between who we really are and who we depict ourselves to be. (Erving Goffman)
Theory of differential association Suggests that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions. (Edwin Sutherland)
The labeling theory States that no act is inherently deviant but that deviance results from labeling a certain act or person.
Social control Methods of causing people to conform to societal norms. May be formal or informal.
Institutionalization The process in which social movements become known and accepted and thereby become an established custom or norm within a society.
The Peter principle states: "In a hierarchy, every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence."
Formal organization A type of group withing society characterized by hierarchy of ranked positions, formality, complex division of labor, large size, and continuity beyond its members.
Gestures Body movements with socially agreed upon meanings in a culture.
The contagion theory states that: Crowds exert a distinct social environment that works to forcefully influence members of the crowd.
Social structure The way in which people organize themselves, both internally and externally.
Countermovement Occurs when a group has certain beliefs and acts on those beliefs in a way that shows the group's resistance to a particular movement or ideology.
Sensorimotor stage (ages 0 to 2) Infants think only in terms of what they can sense and what they can do with those things they sense; they are unaware that their actions lead to results.
Goal displacement Occurs when the individuals or organizations behind a social movement set aside or reject their original goals in order to preserve formal structures.
ego The most conscious part of personality, acts on the pleasure principle, and examines opportunities and goals.
Concrete operational stage (ages 6 to 12) Children can think logically in the context of concrete problems, give meaning to particular events, and can link cause and effect.
Parkinson's law States the work expands to fill the amount of time available for the work to be completed.
Crime An act that goes against legal codes or laws.
Social movement Made up of informal groups who are focused on a specific issue or interest and work to enact a social or institutional change.
Mass A group of people who are concerned with a similar problem or issue but who are not necessarily in the same place at the same time.
Conflict in group processes occurs in three forms: zero-sum/mixed motive, personality-based/situational, and basic/nonbasic
(Letha/Scanzoni – 1976)
Collective behavior A type of group behavior or social practice that does not reflect existing social structure, but instead, occurs spontaneously.
Formal operational stage (ages 12+) Children in this stage of development can think abstractly, hypothetically, and scientifically.
George Mead used the concept of "me" to represent… …the expectations and attitudes of "generalized others" or "significant others."
William Sheldon found that this body type is soft and fat and prone to manic depression and alcoholism. Endomorphic
William Sheldon found that this body type is thin and fragile and prone to schizophrenia. Ectomorphic
William Sheldon found that this body type is muscular and large and most prone to criminal behavior. Mesomorphic
The contagion theory (Gustave LeBon) states that: Crowds exert distinct social environment that works to forcefully influence members of the crowd.
Privilege A dimension of social stratification that comes from income, wealth, or prosperity.
Ageism A deep uneasiness on the part of young people about growing old.
The "glass ceiling" effect A term that describes the occurrence of women earning less than men and often are denied entry to the highest levels.
Genocide The systematic killing of one racial or ethnic group.
Lower class The class that contains individuals who have a very low income (if any at all), are unskilled and often unemployed, and may be semi-illiterate; this class makes up 20% of the population.
Power The ability to control someone else's behavior.
The activity theory This theory states that the elderly person who remains active and socially involved will be best-adjusted.
Discrimination Treating groups of people unequally.
Institutionalized dicsrimination Patterns of discrimination partly based on social structure, such as segregating schools based on residential boundaries.
The poverty threshold (also called poverty line, or poverty level) The level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources required to live.
Pluralism The affirmation and acceptance of diversity in which two groups remain distinct but equal.
Upper middle class Consist of 10-15% of the US population. Individuals who are professionals with earned, salaried incomes and are often highly educated.
Professions Occupations that require extensive training, study, and mastery of specialized knowledge, and are usually guided by ethical codes and require a license or certification.
Expulsion The forcing of minorities to leave and area.
Social mobility The degree to which a person of a group can change social status through the course of life.
Structural mobility The factors present at a societal level (such as number and types of available jobs) that influence mobility.
Acculturation The process that is used to describe what happens when two cultures encounter each other.
Gender differences Social differences based on definitions of masculinity or femininity.
Relative social mobility Social mobility that does not result in a change in social hierarchy from one generation to the next.
Absolute social mobility Social mobility that results in a change in social hierarchy from one generation to the next.
Social stratification Means that societies are arranged along different levels or layers such as different degrees of power, wealth, and social prestige.
Presige The honor and respect associated with a certain position.
Race The term that involves attributing hereditary differences to human populations that are genetically distinct.
Upper class Represented by 3-5% of the population and includes individuals who have often inherited wealth or are involved in corporate ownership and who often have obtained elite educations.
Caste system A system in which an individual cannot leave the social class he or she was born into regardless of wealth or merit.
Working class The class that represents 33% or the US population and is made up of individuals who receive hourly wages, are known as "blue-collar" laborers and often have obtained a high-school education.

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