From conception to birth

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Question Answer
For prenatal development there is a ___ week course 38
What are the three stages of prenatal development? (name in the order they occur) Zygote Stage, Embryo stage and Fetal/fetus stage
The zygote stage is for the first _ weeks. The embryo stage is then until the _th week and the Fetal stage is from _ weeks on. 2, 8, 8
Which stage does cell division occur? Zygote stage
In the Zygote stage it is referred to a sa ___________ before it latches on to the wall Blastocyst
You see a rudimentary eye, a rudimentary arm, a rudimentary leg, an emerging pullet, and genital differentiation in what stage? Embro stage (embryonic period)
Then you get refinement of fingers and toes and sensory organ in what stage? Fetal stage
The age of viability (the earliest a baby can be born and still survive) is…. 20 to 28 weeks
What is the term for this: when there is one cell to begin with and it begins to divide and divide and divide and keeps dividing and what stage is it in? Cell division, in Zygote stage
Up to 30% fail to pass the _______ stage? Zygote
Anything that goes into the mother's body goes into the child's body through the v____ villi (where exchange between the mother and the child takes place)
Up to about a third of babies don't actually make it through the ______ stage. They are spontaneously aborted or the mother has a miscarriage. zygote
There is a primitive brain and a primitive spinal cord by about 3-4 weeks within the _______ stage stage
The heart muscles, the backbone, ribs and digestive tract are all developing at 3-4 weeks and the body structures such as the face, arms legs, toes and fingers are developing at about _____ weeks 5-8
Which stage does sense of touch and movement begin? Embryo stage
By eight weeks of age the child is now referred to as a ______ and is in the ______ stage fetus, fetal
During the last three months of pregnancy, the cerebral cortex ________ – the brain is changing and in particular the convulsions increase _enlarge
By 24 weeks, the baby has p_____ perception. So is capable of experiencing _____ pain, pain
External genitals form in what stage? Fetal stage
By 20 weeks the fetus is sensitive to s______ and l_____ sound and light
At how many weeks are all the neurons that will ever be produced in the brain present? From then on they might die or shrink 24 weeks.
The child has greater organisations of the nervous system, muscles and organs in what stage? Fetal stage
What stage do the eyelids open and close? Fetal stage
In what stage can the child kick, bend arms, form fists, curls toes, open mouth and suck thumb? And what is the child referred to as in this stage? Fetal stage and is called a fetus
.By the time children are born they have already undergone some learning – how do we know this? = one way is by looking at the intervals between their s________ ________? Sucking bursts
So the experiment that looked at IBI (interburst interval) where child is read story while in the womb and after they are born half babies are read familiar story (reward) if they i_________ IBI and half are rewarded if d_________ IBI. Whats this testing? increase, decrease. Testing whether babies have undergone learning before they are born.
What were the results of this mother reading story study? The babies who had been read to while they were in the womb would change their sucking bursts in order to hear the same/familiar story again. This was true whether the baby had to reduce their IBI or increase their IBI
"The babies who had been read to while they were in the womb would change their sucking bursts in order to hear the same/familiar story again. This was true whether the baby had to reduce their IBI or increase their IBI" What does this mean? That the babies are learning while they are in the womb
This idea of babies learning a story in the womb means that their h_______ must be pretty good hearing
What are the four ways of gathering evidence from new-born babies? Heart-rate decelerations, Food preference, Object preference and Habituation (Now read over this in notes)
What concept is this referring to? "in general babies prefer novelty things. If you hold up keys the baby will look for 30 seconds initially and then next time will look for 10 seconds" Habituation
Read through the studies on page 5 and 6 and make summary pages for them.
With colour perception at 1 month babies' red and ______ cones are in place. by 2 months they can perform _________ discrimination and by 4 months that have c____________ colour perception green, colour, categorical
The cones in a baby are different from those of an adults – they are different shape and __________ density
What is this referring to? "agreement that this colour is red and how there is a point where red now becomes orange – knowing the categorical boundaries)" Categorical colour perception
With way infants scan objects, 1 month olds focus on __________ contours and on simple feature on outskirt (simple figures) while 2 months olds fixate on _________ details as well as contours. external, internal
What type of depth cue is this referring to? "If he takes an object and approaches you with the object, you perceive depth because this object is getting larger in your visual field. So you know that it is closer" Optical expansion
At one month infants show awareness of optical expansion depth cue because if you take an object and move it quickly towards them they will ________? blink
What depth cue is this? " you have two eyes and each are perceiving objects in the world at a slightly different angle – if you more up close, it gives you more cues to what te depth is. By 4 months babies are capable of using these cues" Stereopsis
What depth cue is this? "we know that that object is further away because the other one is obscuring it – we can only see a portion of the other one so therefor we know that the other one is closer" Monocular cues
What depth cue is this referring to? "the size of the object is a clue to how close it is to you" Optical expansion
Which depth cue is this referring to? " the child reaches to the longer trapezoidal window indicating that the baby sees it as the nearer side taking into account relative size" Monocular cues
Babies have a number of reflexes and these __________ as cortical control increases weaken
So as the baby gets more and more cortical control over their bodies, their __________ tend to go out of existence. reflexes
What are the names of the two principles of Motor Control? 1. Cephalocaudal trend and 2. Proximodistal trend
What principles of motor control is this? From centre of body outward Proximodistal trend
What principle of motor control is this? From head to tail Cephalocaudal trend
What principle of motor control is this? "the upper portion of the body develops quicker than the lower part of the body" Cephalocaudal trend
What principle of motor control is this? "the middle part of the body develops quicker than the outer part of the body" Proximodistal trend
What principle of motor control is this? "the one month olds head and trunk are larger in proportion to the legs and arms" Proximodistal trend
With boys and girls, most of their development is pretty much parellel. True or false? True, they develop similarly with average heights and average weights the same for both genders
What principle of motor control is this? "When you look at the size a babies head, it's very large relative to the rest of the body. If you look at an adult the head is much smaller. So the upper portion of the babies body is developing much more quickly" Cephalocaudal trend
In the first week of a baby's life their is a 8 – 10 % reduction in body weight (mainly fluids). Is this true or false? False, its 5 – 10%
Girls and boys heights are the same up until adolescents at which the ____ (boy or girl?) grows rapidly taller. This is linked to h__________ boy, hormones
One mechanism for change is Greater cortical control which develops as the baby gets older. This helps te baby to c_______ their body. Control
One mechanism for change is increased __________ which allows the baby to do things such as walk or hold their heads up and therefore be able to see things strength
What two mechanisms for change allows us to get about? Increase posture control and increased balance
What mechanism of change is this? "vision which is developing" Perceptual skills
One mechanism of change is changes in body proportions which helps the baby to get around and walk. True or false? True
What mechanism of change is this? "as the baby begins to look at your eyes and mouth, they have increased motivation for social contact as now the baby is taking in the emotional information that you are conveying to them via your eyes and mouth" Motivation
What is this type of reach called? "poorly coordinated swipes or swings" Prereaching
What is this grasp called? "where infants use thumb and index finger in a well-coordinated grasp" Pincer grasp
What grasp is this referring to? "With this the ability to manipulate objects greatly expands" Pincer grasp

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