# Introduction to Physical Science D-12 Study Guide

Heating Baking Soda:

what did you observe at the bottom of the test tube?

a white powder
Heating baking soda:

what did you observe near the top of the test tube

condensation a clear liquid
Heating baking soda:

what did you observe in the inverted bottle

Gas collects and pushes water out/bubbles
Heating Baking Soda:

where do you think the gas came from?

baking soda, air on the outside (condensation)
Explain the tea test. What did you do? (# of test tubes) and why did you do this? took 2 test tubes 1 with heated bakind soda and 1 with with fresh baking soda, I addded tea to each as a color indicator to see if the substances are the same. Is the heated baking soda still baking soda?
Volume:

How do you determine the volume of a brick?

Length X Width X Height
Volume:

What are the units for volume of a brick

cm3
Volume:

How do you measure the volume of a liquid?

Volume:

What are the units for volume of a liquid

ML
Volume:

How many cm are there in a meter

100 cm
Volume:

To determine the volume of an irregular solid, what two measurements must be subtracted from each other?

volume after – volume before

How many millimeters in a centimeter

10mm

How would you record the length of an object that appears to be halfway between 2.3 cm and 2.4 cm?

2.35 Cm

When reading the volume of a liquid in a graduated cylinder do you read the top or the bottom of the liquid?

bottom

What is the curve of a liquid called?

minicus
Measuring Volume bu Displacement of Water:
If the:
Volume of Dry sand is 54 cm3
Volume of water is 22 cm3
Volume of sand and water is 63 cm3

What is Volume of sand only?
What is Volume of Air?Fraction of air (expressed as a decimal

Sand only = 41 cm3
Air = 13 cm3
Fraction of air expressed as a decimal = .24
Limitations of volume as a measure of matter:

The main point of this section is that volume ________ a;ways a good measure of the amount of a substance.always a good measure of the amount of a substance.

Is Not
limitations of Volume as a Measure of Matter:

Volume is not always a good measure of the amount of a substance because volume is not always _________________ when mixing matter

Conserved
Mass-the Equal Arm Balance:

When the bar of an equal-arm balance is ________ the objects have the same mass

horizontal
Mass-the Equal Arm Balance:

one kilo gram = how many grams

1000
Mass-the Equal Arm Balance:

One kilogram = how many pounds

2.2
Single pan and Electronic Balances:

The sliding masses on a balance commonly in a physicians off are called

riders
Single pan and Electronic Balances:
Electronic balances have 2 advantages. First, it takes only __________________ to mass an object. Second, in many experiments you will need to determine the mass of a liquid or powder in a container.
a few seconds
Single pan and Electronic Balances:
An electronic balance can _________ the mass of the container and give you the mass of the sat_flash_1s only.
subtract
The Mass of Dissolved Salt:

what is the formula for change in mass

Final – initial
The Mass of Dissolved Salt:

If the change in mass is +, this indicated that:

mass increased
The Mass of Dissolved Salt:

If the change in the mass is -, this indicates that

mass decreased
Histograms:

Calculating the difference between two measurements________ the uncertainty.

Doubles
Histograms:
When data is on the border between two bins, it is placed in the bin to the
right
Histograms:

Negative numbers are to the ______ of the zero

left
Histograms:
Positive numbers are to the _________ of the zero
right
To avoid drawing misleading conclusion from histograms, try to set the borders between intervals so the results that occur most often fit 1)_________ inside intervals rather than on the 2)_______ 1)inside
2)borders
The Mass of Ice and Water:

As Ice melts, its volume _____________

Decreases
The Mass of Ice and Water:

as ice melts, in a closed container, mass ___________________________

stays the same
The Mass of Ice and Water:

Did condensation form on the outside of the container in this experiment?

yes
The Mass of Ice and Water:

If condensation did form, what should you do about it?

wipe it off so it doesn't change the mass
The mass of Copper and Sulfur:

The formula for percent change in mass is ?

(final-initial
initial) x100
The mass of Copper and Sulfur:

What kind of system is used in this experiment?

Closed experiment
The mass of Copper and Sulfur:

At the end of the experiment, the substance in the bottom of the test tube is
a) Sulfur
b) Copper
c) a new substance

c) a new substance
The Mass of Gas:

In this experiment, does the mass change

no
The Mass of Gas:

What is formed in this experiment

Gas
The Mass of Gas:

Does Gas have mass?

yes
The Conservation of Mass:

A closed system is a setup in which nothing is 1)________ or 2)__________

2) lost
The Conversation of Mass:

The Law of Conservation of Mass states that nothing is 1)____________ or 2)_______ in a closed system

1) gained
2) lost
The Conservation of Mass:

Is volume always conserved?

No
The Conservation of Mass:

In a closed system, is mass conserved?

Yes
Laws of Nature:

If you do an experiment that appears to violate a law of nature, are you punished?

no
Properties of Substances and Properties of Objects:

A Characteristic property is characteristic of the ______ _________________ not the object

substance
Properties of Substances and Properties of Objects:

Is mass a property

No
Properties of Substances and Properties of Objects:

Is volume a characteristic property

No
Properties of Substances and Properties of Objects:

Is shape a characteristic property

No
Properties of Substances and Properties of Objects:

Is the ability to be bent a characteristic property?

yes
Properties of Substances and Properties of Objects:

which of the words below refer to substance:
a clear, round, small, heavy, glass marble

glass, clear
Properties of Substances and Properties of Objects:

Which of the words below refer to the object:
a clear, round, small, heavy, glass marble

round, small, heavy, marble
Mass and Volume:

IF the volume of an object doubles, its mass____________.

Doubles
Density:

What is the formula of Density?

D= M over V
Density:

What are the units for density?

g/m. g/cm3
Density:

Is Density a characteristic property?

yes
the Density of a solid?

How do you determine the volume of a regular shaped object?

L x W x H
The density of a solid:

What are the units for volume?

Cm3
Freezing and Melting:

A plateau (flat line) on a graph means one of two things. One, this temperature indicates a _______________ (freezing/melting point or boiling point)

phase change
Graphing:

the __________ variable is graphed on the x axis

independent
Graphing:

the x-axis is the _____________ axis

horizontal
The ________________________ variable is graphed on the y-axis dependent
The y axis is the ___________________ axis vertical
Boiling Point and Air Pressure:

Boiling point _________ as elevation increases

decreases
Boiling Point and Air Pressure:

The boiling point of water is ________ in Miami, Florida than it is in Colorado Springs, CO

Higher
Concentration:

Concentration is often expresses as grams/_______ cm3

100
Heating Baking Soda:

Where do the droplets on the test tube come from?

Heating the test tube creates moisture
Sensitivity of balance:

A rectangle has a mass of

0.0063 g.
The Density of liquid: How do you determine the density of a liquid? You put a 10 ml 1)________ on the balance & press 2)____________then you pour 3) ______ if the liquid into the 4)_______. You read the mass on the 5)________ & the volume on the6)_______ 1) graduated cylinder
2) Tare
3) 8-9 mls
5) balance
Freezing and Melting:

Does the temperature at which a substance freezes/melts depend on the amount that was cooled/warmed?

No
Freezing and Melting:
A solid 1)________ at the same temperature that the liquid form of the same substance freezes. Thus the melting point and the freezing point of a substance are 2)______.
1) melts
2) the same
Boiling Point:

Does the boiling point of a liquid depend on the amount of liquid

no
Boiling Point:

Is the boiling point a characteristic property?

yes
Concentration:

the formula for concentration is:

Solute/solvent
Concentration:

Solute is:

the substance that gets dissolved
Concentration:

Solvent is:

the substance that does the dissolving
Concentration:

Solution is:

Solute and solvent mixed together
Concentration:

Solubility is the concentration of a?

saturated solution
Concentration:

Solubility is a characteristic property of both the 1) _____ and 2)_____

1) solute
2) solvent
The effect of temperature on Solubility:

precipitates means

when a solid crystallizes out of a saturated solution we say the solid precipitates out of a saturated solution. We say the solid precipitates out of the solution
The effect of temperature on Solubility:

Precipitate means

the solid that precipitated out
The effect of temperature on Solubility:

Solubility _______________ with an increase in temperature

Increases
Wood Alcohol and Grain Alcohol:

Wood alcohol (methanol) and grain Alcohol (ethanol) have nearly the same density but different 1) ___________ points and 2) ___________ points

1) Melting
2) Boiling
Wood Alcohol and Grain Alcohol:

Methanol is very ___________________

poisonous
Wood Alcohol and Grain Alcohol:

Isopropyl alcohol is commonly called

rubbing alcohol
Isopropanol as a Solvent:

Is citric acid soluble in Isopropanol?1)_______________
2) Water _____________

1)yes
2)yes
Isopropanol as a Solvent:

Is sugar soluble in Isopropanol? 1)___________
In water? 2)__________

1)No
2)yes
Isopropanol as a Solvent:

Is TOP souble in Isopropanol? 1)____________
In water 2) _______________

1) yes
2) no
Isopropanol as a Solvent:

Is baking soda soluble in Isopropanol?
1)___________
In water 2) _______________

1)no
2) yes
the Solubility of gases:

The solubility of a gas ______________ as the temperature increases

Decreases
Acid Rain and Global Warming:

Acidic Solutions are:

Solutions that have a sour taste and are able to dissolve minerals and metals to a much greater extent than water
Acid Rain and Global Warming:

Carbonic Acid is:

An acid solution formed by raindrops dissolving carbon dioxide as they pass the the atmosphere
Acid Rain and Global Warming:

Global warming is:

An increase in the average temp due to CO2 being produced and added to the atmosphere when coal, oil, wood and gasoline are burned
Acid Rain and Global Warming:

Acid Rain is:

Water falling to the earth that contains dissolved sulfur dioxide
Drinking Water:

What is hard water and how does it effect soaps?

Hard water is water containing excessive amounts of calcium carborate. Soaps do not later or clean effectively in it.
Drinking Water:

Drinking water with a high enough concentration of lead can cause damage to the 1)_________ and other parts of the 2) ____________________

1) Brain
2) Nervous System
Drinking Water:

L:ead is more harmful than other substances that are in drinking water because led is not _______________ from the body as quickly

eliminated
Drinking Water:

Instead of being eliminated from the body quickly, lead 1)____________ in the body so its concentration 2)____________ as time passes

1) accumulates
2) Increases
Fractional Distillation:

How do you know when to switch tubes

1-2 minutes into a plateau
Fractional Distillation:

How do you determine how many substances in the mixture

Run fractional distillation to find Plateau
Fractional Distillation:

What did you do to determine the density of the liquid

Fractional Distillation:
If given 3 different mixtures, the density of fraction 2 density would be?
Between .79-1.00
Petroleum:
If 2 boiling points are close together what might happen?
hard to separate
Petroleum:
If 2 boiling points are further apart, what will your fractions look like?
Easy to separate
Petroleum:

Petroleum comes from 1) ______ and 2)______

1) Plants
2) Animals
Petroleum:
Fractionating column means
How petroleum is separated
Petroleum:

Whys is it possible to make gasoline

BP Characteristics Property
Separation of Insoluble Solids:

Separation by flotation

Different density
Separation of Insoluble Solids:

Density – what will float and what will sink in water(1.00g/cm3)
1) 1.72g/cm3 float or sink
2) .82g/cm3 float or sink

1) Sink
2) Float
Separation of a Mixture of Solids:

Filtrate means:

Goes through the gate
Separation of a Mixture of Solids:

Filtride means

Takes a ride
Separation of a Mixture of Soluble Solids:

Fraction crystallization

using different temp to separate substances
Separation of a Mixture of Soluble Solids:

What is the advantage to separating substances at different temperatures – think back on your solubility lab

Some solubility are at different temps
Separation of a Mixture of Soluble Solids:

Hos do you calculate Solubility

solute over solvent
Paper Chromatography:

Define Chromatography

separation of molecules
Paper Chromatography:

Why do substances separate

Size of molecules
Solubility Calculation: gas over solid