Microbiology Quiz Review

Question Answer
Epidemiology study of disease
Epidemiologists study the factors that determine the frequency, distribution, and determinants of diseases in human populations and they also develop ways to prevent, control, or eradicate diseases in populations.
communicable disease an infectious disease that can be transmitted from one person to another
contagious disease communicable disease that is easily transmitted from person-to-person
Zoonotic diseases diseases that humans acquire from animal source
incidence rate particular disease is the number of new cases of that disease in a defined population over a specific time period compared with healthy population
morbidity rate number of new cases of a particular disease that occurred during a specified time period per a specifically defined population
Period prevalence number of cases of a disease existing in a given population during a specific time period
Point Prevalence number of cases of a disease existing in a given population at a particular moment in time
Mortality rate ratio of the number of people who died of a particular disease during a specified time period per a specified population
sporadic disease one that occurs only occasionally within the population of a particular geographic area;
endemic disease one that is always present over time within the population of a particular geographic area
epidemic disease defined as a greater than usual number of cases of a disease in a particular region, usually within a short period of time;
pandemic disease that is occurring in epidemic proportions in many countries simultaneously
What does the infectious disease occurs depend on? -Factors pertaining to the pathogen
-Factors pertaining to the host
-Factors pertaining to the environment
What are the 6 component in the infectious disease process? 1.pathogen
2.source of the pathogen
3.portal of exit
4.mode of transmission
5.portal of entry
6.susceptible host
reservoirs of infection or reservoirs The sources of microorganisms that cause infectious diseases are many and varied
What are some examples of living reservoirs? humans,pets, farm animals, insects, and arachnids.
Passive carriers carry a pathogen without ever having a disease
Incubatory carriers transmits a pathogen during the incubation period
Convalescent carriers transmit a pathogen while recovering from an infectious disease
Active carriers completely recovered but continue to harbor pathogen indefinitely transmits pathogen through vehicles either
zoonotic diseases or zoonoses Infectious diseases that humans acquire from animal sources
Arthropods Animals that transmits a pathogen from one host to another
Fomites inanimate objects capable of transmitting pathogens
What are examples of the most common modes of transmission of infectious diseases?
(part 1)
-Direct skin-to-skin contact
-Direct mucous membrane-to-mucous membrane contact by kissing or sexual intercourse
-Indirect contact via airborne droplets of respiratory secretions, usually produced by sneezing or coughing – most commonly used by pathogen
What are examples of the most common modes of transmission of infectious diseases?
(part 2)
-Indirect contact via food and water contaminated by fecal matter
-Indirect contact via arthropod vectors
-Indirect contact via fomites
What are examples of the most common modes of transmission of infectious diseases?
(part 3)
-Indirect contact via transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products or by parenteral injection using nonsterile syringes or needles
Perinatal Transmission/Vertical Transmission also known as mother-to-child transmission: mother transmits disease to fetus or child
What is WHO and what is there mission? World Health Organization and Missions: to promote technical cooperation for health among nations; to carry out programs to control and eradicate diseases; to improve the quality of human life.
What is CDC and what is there mission? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Mission: “to collaborate to create the expertise, information, and tools that people and communities need to protect their health

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