### 5-1 What is Energy

What is energy? The ability to do work.
What is Kinetic Energy? The energy of an object that is due to the object's motion.
What is Potential Energy? The energy that an object has because of the position, shape, or condition of the object.
What is Mechanical Energy? The amount of work an object can do because of the object's kinetic and potential energies.
What is Thermal Energy? Kinetic Energy due to the random motion of the particles that make up an object.
What is Chemical Energy? The energy of a compound that changes as its atoms are rearranged.
What is Electrical Energy? The energy of moving electrons.
What does sound energy consist of? Vibrations carried through the air.
What is Light Energy? Produced by vibrations of electrically charged particles
Where does nucleur energy come from? Energy that comes from change in the nucleus of an atom.
What two factors determine gravitational potential energy? Weight and Height
Thermal energy and sound energy can be considered types of __________ energy. Kinetic
__________ energy is the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy Mechanical
Chemical energy, electrical energy, and nucleur energy can be considered forms of ____________ energy. Potential

### 5-2 Energy Conversions

What is an energy conversion? A change from one form of energy to another.
How is elastic potential energy stored? It can be stored by stretching a rubber band
How is elastic potential energy released? It is released when the rubber band goes back to its original shape.
Where does the energy that plants use to grow come from? From the sun, light energy is converted into chemical energy
What are two things that machines can do to force that is put into them? Change the size or direction of the input force
How does your body get the energy that it needs? By using the food you eat to convert chemical energy into kinetic energy.
What is the role of machines in energy conversions? They convert energy into a more useful form.

### 5-3 Conservation of Energy

What is Friction? A force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact.
What is the Law of Conservation of Energy? The law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another.
Why is the law of conservation of energy considered a scientific law? Because no exception to it has ever been observed
What is a closed system? A group of objects that transfer only to each other.
Why is "perpetual motion" impossible? Because energy conversions always result in the production of waste thermal energy
What is energy efficiency? the comparison of the amount of energy before a conversion with the amount of useful energy after a conversion.

### key terms

Term Definition
Vertebrate Animal with a backbone.
endoskeleton Skeleton inside the body.
invertebrate Animal without a backbone.
Exoskeleton Skeleton on the outside of the body.
Pores Tiny openings.
Poriferan Invertibrate animal with pores.
Spicule Small, hard, needlelike structure of a sponge.
Cnidarian Invertebrate animal with stinging cells and a hollow central cavity.
Polyp Cuplike form of a Cnidarian.
Medusa Umbrella-like form of a Cnidarian.
Platyhelminth Type of worm with a flattened body.
Parisite Organism that gets its food by living on or in the body of another organism.
Nematode Type of worm with a segmented body.
Annelid Type of worm with a segmented body.
Setea Tiny, hairlike bristles.
Closed circulatory system Organ system in wich blood moves through vessels.
Mollusk Soft-bodied organism.
Mantle Thin membrane that covers a mollusk's organs.
Radula Rough, tonguelike organ of a snail.
Echinoderm Spiny-skinned animal.
Wtaer-vascular system System

### matter

forms when different particles mix together evenly solution
matter that has definite volume and takes the shape of its container liquid
the ability to float buoyancy
anything that takes up space and has mass matter
amount of space that matter takes up volume
measures the amount of one material that will dissolve into another solubilty
amount of matter something contains mass
matter that has no definite shape and takes up no definite amount of space gas
compares an amount of matter to the amount of space it takes up density
matter that has definite shape and volume solid
what happens when one material forms a solution with another material dissolves
adding ____ makes particles in matter move faster heat
matter is made up of small bits called ____ particles
a liquid measuring cup measures the ____ of a liquid volume
submarines can sink or float by controlling their _____ buoyancy
___ that is less dense than water will float matter
how are particles arranged in a liquid close together slipping and sliding past each other
how are particles arranged in a solid close together moving around one point
what is the mass of my book if the standard measurements are 100g, 100g, 20g, 15g, 1g, 1g 237g
what is the volume of a box if the length is 50cm, the height is 25cm, and the width is 5cm 6250cm
what is the density of a ruler if the mass is 200g and the volume is 25cm 8 g/cm

### SOL3.10

When plants and animals depend on each other for survival, it is called ____________. interdependency
Some ways humans have a negative effect on the environment are ___________. clearing land to grow crops building cities and roads; polluting the land, air, and water; and using pesticides.
Some ways humans have a positive effect on the environment are ___________. resource renewal, habitat management, and species monitoring.
Conservation is___________. the careful use and protection of natural resources.
Resource renewal is _____________. when humans protect a species of plants and animals. (planting seeds of endangered plants, no killing of endangered animals)
Habitat management is ______________. the protection of plants and animal habitats. (wildlife refugees, no hunting area)
Species monitoring is ______________. keeping records of the different plants and animals living in an area. ( counting the number of eagles each year)

### This study stack is to help you study for a test on Cells

What is the function of the cell wall? helps to protect and support the cell
What does the cell membrane do for the cell? controls what substances come into and out of the cell
Which cell has a cell wall, an animal cell or a plant cell? plant cell
What is the "brain" of the cell the nucleus
What is an organelle? the tiny cell structures that carry out specific functions within the cell
What does mitochondria do for the cell? converts energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its function
Which part of a cell produces protein? ribosomes
What is the function of chloroplasts? takes energy from the sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell (photosynthesis)
What is the difference between a bacterial cell and a plant or animal cell? does not contain a nucleus.
What is diffusion? the main method by which small molecules move across the cell membrane
What causes diffusion? collisions of molecules against each other cause them to push away from one another which, over time, cause the molecules will spread out until they are evenly distributed.
Give an analogy of diffusion. students in a crowded hallway spread out when going through a bigger hallway
Give an analogy of a cell membrane the walls of a castle are like a cell membrane because they protect the castle and the gatekeeper decides who to let in or out
What is osmosis? the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
Why does osmosis occur? because cells cannot function properly without adequate water and many cellular processes depend on it
What process took place when we put the food coloring into the water for our egg experiment? diffusion
What process took place when the egg sat in the water with food coloring? osmosis
How is osmosis related to diffusion? it is the process by which small molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. versus the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
Give an analogy of photosynthesis solar panels, because they take energy from the sun and turn it into energy we can use.
What is active transport? the movement of materials through a cell membrane using cellular energy; it requires the cell to use its own energy
What is passive transport? is the movement of dissolved materials through a cell membrane without using cellular energy

### Vocabulary

Term Definition
speed of sound the speed at which a sound wave travels through a given material
sonic boom a shock wave of compressed sound waves produced by on object moving faster than sound
pitch a measure of how high or low a sound is
loudness your perception of the amount of sound energy reaching your ear
echo a sound reflection
wavelength the distance from one compression to the next in a sound wave
amplitude a measure of the strength of a sound wave shown by height on a wave diagram
sound wave a moving pattern of high and low pressure that you could hear
compression the part of a sound wave in which air is pushed together

### 5th Grade Science: Energy Unit 7 (March 2013)

Energy ability to do work or cause change
Thermal energy Energy that comes from heat. It is produced by the Sun and is needed for life on Earth.
flow the transfer of energy
refraction Bending of light. When light hits and travels through a different medium, the light is bent.
Light spectrum the range of electromagnetic wavelengths that our eyes can see (ROYGBIV)
Mechanical energy the energy an object has due to its position or motion. "Movement" and can be used for things such as turning a wheel, peddling a bike, raising a flag, etc.
Electrical circuit the path an electric current takes
Electrical current The continuous flow of electricity through a conductor
Lens A piece of glass or other transparent material that lets light pass through it
Magnify To make something appear larger than it is with a lens or microscope
Light energy Energy that people can see. Can be produced by the Sun, fire, batteries or the result of a complete electrical circuit
Electromagnetism Magnetism produced by an electric current
Mirror A surface that reflects light.
Kaleidoscope A tube-shaped toy that is rotated to produce designs with reflected light using bits of colored glass at one end of the tube.
Sound energy A form of energy where vibrations travel through solids, liquids and gases and are detected by the organs of hearing.
Conductor A material through which electricity flows
Laser A device that produces an intense beam of light.
Telescope An instrument for viewing distant objects by refracting light rays through a lens
Insulator Material that slows down or stops electric current or heat from flowing
Reflection Light bouncing off of an object. When light hits a surface and bounces back.
Illuminate To brighten with light
Electrical energy Can be achieved through the creation of a complete circuit. This can be seen when anything is plugged into an electric circuit. We depend on this type of energy to power lights, appliances, and some cars.

### Common element names and their symbols

Element Name Symbol
Hydrogen H
Helium He
Lithium Li
Carbon C
Nitrogen N
Oxygen O
Fluorine F
Neon Ne
Sodium Na
Magnesium Mn
Aluminum Al
Silicon Si
Phosphorus P
Sulfur S
Chlorine Cl
Argon Ar
Potassium K
Calcium Ca
Iron Fe
Nickel Ni
Copper Cu
Zinc Zn
Silver Ag
Tin Sn
Iodine I
Gold Au
Mercury Hg