SCC hematology FINAL

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What are the 3 rules which early maturation sequence cells are ID'd: 1. characteristics of the mucleus
2. characteristics of the cytoplasm
3. size of the cell
4. company they keep
What WBC's are found ONLY in the bone marrow under normal circumstancesz? Myeloblast, PromyeloCYTE, myelocyte, metamyelocyte,
What two types of WBC's are found in both the bone marrow and peripheral blood? (Bands/Stabs) and (Neutrophil/PMN/Segs)
Describe the nucleus and cytoplasm of a myeloblast (WBC) extremely fine chromatin patter, nucleoli present, round/oval slightly indented, more nucleus than cytoplasm. Cytoplasm
Describe the nucleus and cytoplasm of a promyelocyte (WBC) Nucleus: occupies about ? the cell (lower N:C ratio than myeloblast),
round/oval/slightly indented, chromatin pattern is somewhat courser than
myeloblast, nucleoli are present. Blue/med. blue primary undifferentiated granules
Describe the nucleus and cytoplasm of a myelocyte (WBC) Myelocyte
a. Nucleus: occupies about ? the cell, round/oval, course/condensed
chromatin pattern, nucleoli are difficult to see (if al all)
b. Cytoplasm: less blue/more pink, secondary differentiated granules are
What does it mean when secondary differentiated granules are present? this means the cell is committed at this stage to either become a
What is the last cell in maturation sequence capable of mitosis? Myelocyte
Describe the nucleus and cytoplasm of a metamyelocyte (WBC) Nucleus: bean/kidney shaped, chromatin pattern is clumped,
b. Cytoplasm: more pink/clear
Describe the nucleus and cytoplasm of a Band/Stab (WBC) Nucleus: nuclear indentation continues so nucleus looks like a
sausage/horse-shoe, very condensed chromatin pattern
b. Cytoplasm: azure (fine) granules are present, pink/clear in color
Describe the nucleus and cytoplasm of a Neutrophil/PMN/Segmented (WBC) Nucleus: 2-5 lobes connected by filaments (strands)
b. Cytoplasm: fine granulation visible, a few darker or purplish granules
may be seen, pinkish/cleat in color
Normal maturation sequence for RBC's…..these cells are only found in the bone marrow Pronormoblast/Rubiblast
Basophilic normoblast/prorubicyte
Polychromatic normoblast/Rubricyte,
What RBC's are found in both the bone marrow and the peripheral blood? Retics and mature RBC's
Describe the nucleus and cytoplasm of a Pronormoblast/Rubriblast (RBC) Nucleus: nucleoli are present, loose chromatin pattern

Cytoplasm: basophilic

Size: large

Describe the nucleus and cytoplasm of a Basophilic normoblast/Prorubricyte (RBC) Nucleus: nucleoli are present, loose chromatin pattern

Cytoplasm: basophilic

Size: slightly smaller than rubriblast

Describe the nucleus and cytoplasm of a Polychromatic normoblast/Rubricyte (RBC) Nucleus: clumping/condensation seen

Cytoplasm: blue/red = gray (hgb formation present)

Size: slightly smaller than the prorubricyte

Describe the nucleus and cytoplasm of a normoblast/Metarubricyte (RBC) Nucleus: dense

Cytoplasm: increasingly red in color

Size: smaller than rubricyte

Describe the nucleus and cytoplasm of a Reticulocyte (RBC) Nucleus: none

Cytoplasm: red (salmon) colored

Size: seen as polychromoatic (polychromasia) on Wright’s stained smears.

Describe the nucleus and cytoplasm of a discocyte "mature" (RBC) Nucleus: none

Cytoplasm: red (salmon) color

Size: 6-8 um

What are "retics" indicators of when stained with supravital stain? Indicators of bone marrow function, precipitated RNA can be seen
Define normocytic normal cell size
define normochromic normal hgb sat_flash_1
define anisocytosis an overall difference(variation) in RBC sizes
define Macrocytes/macrocytosis/macrocytic an increase above normal in the size
of the RBCs.
define Microcytes/microcytosis/microcytic means a decrease below normal in the size

of the RBCs.

define Dimorphic RBC population normal and abnormal RBC sizes, associated with

transfusions, and myelodysplastic syndromes

define Normochromic Hgb sat_flash_1 (central pallor) occupies 1/3 of RBC
define Hypochromic Hypochromic decreasing Hgb sat_flash_1 (central pallor) exceeds 1/3 of RBC
define Hyperchromic lack of central pallor in the RBC
define Polychromasia violet tinting, fine basophilic stippling of the RBCs.
what is polychromasia seen with? increased erythropoiesis,A

polychromatic RBC, when stained with new methylene blue (supra-

vital stain) can show a varying degree of residual RNA and is then called a

define Poikilocytosis means an overall difference (variation) in RBC shapes
define ovalcytes oval (wide), central pallor not oval
what deficiencies/diseases are ovalocytes associated with iron deficiency

anemia and megaloblastic anemias.

define Elliptocytes cigar shape (narrow)
what deficiencies/diseases are Elliptocytes associated with? thalassemias and sickle cell
define Sickle cell (depranocyte) crescent or half moon shape, membrane defect due to

low oxygen tension

what deficiencies/diseases are Sickle cell (depranocyte)associated with/ sickle cell anemia
define Teardrop (dacryocyte), what dieases associated with? teardrop or pear shape with elongated tail,thalassemias and myeloid metaplasia
define Stomatocyte, associated with? round RBC with a slit like central pallor, often an artifact of slow

drying of the peripheral smear, associated with alcoholism, and cirrhosis

define Echinocyte (burr cell), associated with? spiny projections, usually

artifact, associated with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and uremia

define Acanthocyte,spur cell, associated with? irregular spiny projections that vary in

width, length and number, associated with liver disease

define Schistocyte (helmet cells/blister cells), associated with? fragmented RBC, many sizes and shapes

are present on a smear, damaged RBC membrane, associated with

hemolytic anemias, and DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation)

define Spherocyte, associated with? no central pallor (RBC membrane abnormality), microcytic RBC,

associated with Hereditary spherocytosis and severe burns

define Target cell (leptocyte/codocyte), associated with? RBC shaped like a bull’s eye, indicates an

excess membrane compared to the amount of hgb sat_flash_1, associated with

hemoglobinopathies, post-splenectomy, and liver disease

define Howell-Jolly bodies, associated with? dark blue to purple staining DNA pyknotic nuclear

remnants, associated with hemolytic anemia, megaloblastic anemias,

sickle cell anemia

define Basophilic stippling, associated with? numerous dark blue to purple fine or coarse staining RNA

granules, associated with thalassemias, megaloblastic anemia, and lead


Pappenheimer bodies clusters of light blue fine irregular staining granules

composed of iron, usually only one cluster per RBC, associated with

sideroblastic anemia, hemoglobinopathies, megaloblastic anemia and

hemolytic anemia

Cabots rings dark blue to purple staining loop, ring, or figure eight shaped RBC

inclusion,remnant of the mitotic

spindle formed during mitosis (cell division), associated with

megaloblastic, lead poisoning, and pernicious anemia

Heinz bodies denatured (precipitated) hgb, single or multiple dark blue to purple

staining bodies usually found bound (attached) to the RBC membrane,

associated with hemoglobinopathies, some RBC enzyme deficiencies

Can heinz bodies be seen with Wright's stain? No, must be

stained with a special stain such as Brilliant Cresol Blue.

Hemoglobin C crystals single dark red staining hexagonal shaped RBC inclusion,

associated with homogenous hgb C disease

Abnormal RBC distribution patterns ……
Rouleaux RBCs appearing as a stack of coins, associated with increased

concentrations of proteins

Agglutination (autoagglutination) clumping of RBCs, associated with antigen/

antibody reactions, and cold agglutinin disease, agglutination affects the

RBC and MCV counts

what is the scientific name for red blood cells? erythrocytes
what is the scientific name for white blood cells? leukocytes
What is the definition of Hematology? study of blood
What is the scientific name for platelets? thrombocytes
what is the function of the RBC? RBC's serve as carriers of oxygen to all parts of the body
what is the general function of WBC's? WBC's help our body fight off infections
Which of the following stains is the one most commonly used in the Hematology department? Wright's-Giemsa stain
Why is bone marrow considered a "living tissue"? this is the place where all cells are formed (given "life")
List the five types of WBCs. neutrophils, lymphocytes, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes
What is the process of "Hemostasis"? coagulation–the blood is capable of forming clots to slow or stop bleeding
as well as dissolving clots when no longer needed
What are "bloodborne" pathogens? microorganisms that can cause diesase
What does the Standard Precautions rule state about blood and body fluid specimens? each has the potential to cause infection or disease and should be treated as potientially hazardous
List four examples of potentially infectious specimens as determined by the Standards Precautions rule. blood, semen, synovial fluid, vaginal secretions
What four types of occupational hazards exist in the laboratory? fire, chemical, biological, electrical
When is it mandated that laboratory personnel should receive safety training? annually, new employee, new instrument and procedures
List the five features of a well-made peripheral blood smear *more than 1/2 across slides' length 3/4 is best.
*has a feathered edge.
*smooth line across slide no streaks, smudges.
*not too thin nor *thick with a rainbow apprearance in the feathered edge .
*utilized the entire drop of blood
What is the name of the anticoagulant most commonly used in the Hematology department, and what is the color of the vacutainer tube that contains this anticoagulant? EDTA it has a lavendar top
What should be the appropriate angle of the pusher slide when making blood smears? 30-45 degree angle
What is the name of the MOST commonly used blood smear preparation technique used in the Hematology department? wedge technique
When making a blood smear, why is it so important to maintain, even gentle pressure on the pusher slide? adding pressure to the pusher slide will cause distribution of the cells to be abnormal causing wrong patient results.
What is the purpose of staining blood smears? To get a better view of the morphology (size, shape) of all the cells present
What is the name of the stain MOST commonly used in the Hematology department? Why is this stain considered a "polychromatic" stain? Wrights stain it is polychromatic because it has more than 1 type of dye and can dye numerous cells
What is the purpose of using the low power magnification (10X) when performing an examination of a blood smear? To bring into focus the field of view and then you can check for clarity and even distribution of cells and quality of the slide
How will the angle of a pusher slide less than 30 degrees affect slide making? This will produce a thicker smear and will not distribute the cells well enough for randomness and accurate interpretation of the differential read
What observation of the blood smear is made at 40X magnification? manual diffs of the WBC's preformed at high power
In what area of the blood smear is the WBC differential performed? Why? the feathered edge is where cells will be most well spread out and not touch one another so it is easier to count and differeniate between all the 5 types of cells
At what magnification is a WBC differential performed? Why? 100X. It is at this magnification that the formed elements can best be viewed.
Briefly explain why all blood smears, once they are made, should be dried quickly. To avoid artifact. Artifact is distorted cell morphology that is not representative of the patient's true condition.
What is the purpose of the buffy coat smear? When patient results are <1000u/L this technique is used
Briefly explain what is meant by internal quality control checks. Labs will perform two+ tests in different manners to compare to one another for a correlation of accuracy and consistency to ensure the quality and each method is being preformed correctly and accurately
total magnification are the following observations made:1. manual platelet estimate
2. manual WBC estimate
3. overall slide quality
4. blood cell morphology
manual platelet estimates are performed at 1000X magnification
2. manual WBC estimates are MOST often performed at 400X magnification
3. overall slide quality is performed at 100X magnification
4. blood cell morphology is performed at 1000X magnificati
When making a fingerstick/capillary blood smear, the platelets clump. Why does this happen? Platelets will clump on the slide because the platelets' clotting function becomes activated when they come into contact with glass surfaces.
define anticoagulant Any agent used to prevent the formation of blood clots
what are cells cells are the basic structural units that make up living organisms.
what are the basic parts of a cell? nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane
what is the cellular membrane a semi-permeable outer barrier separating the cellular components from their surroundings.
what are the 3 basic functions of the cellular membrane? 1. selective permability
2. facilitates cell to cell recognition
3. supports blood grps. to aid in cellular identity
what is the function of the nucleus? Its the control center of the cell and the largest organelle within the cell.
the nucleus is made up of up? DNA
What 3 components make up the nucleus 1. chromatin
2. nuclear envelope
3. nucleoli
what makes up the cytoplasm and function? It is the environment in which the organelles join and function
What are lysosomes and what is their function in a cell? membranous sacs that contain hydrolytic enzymes and they break off and lysis organisms leaving vacuoles
1. Define hematopioesis. he formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)
3. What is the primary site of hematopioesis in the adult? Bone marrow
4. Define medullary hematopoiesis the production of blood cells in the bone marrow
5. Define extramedullary hematopoiesis when the formation and development of blood cells occurs outside of the bone marrow, organs compensate and meet the depands.
6. Presently, what are the two proposed theories of how the formed elements of the blood develop? monophyletic-all blood cells derive from 1 stem cell.
polyphyletic-that there is a separate and distinct stem cell for each of the formed elements of the blood.
7. What factors determine the rate at which cells are produced? 1. the body's need
2. how well the bone marrow can respond
9. The bone marrow primarily produces what type of blood cells? The bone marrow produces the myeloid cells, namely the erythrocytes (RBCs), granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes and platelets
10 Where does production of the lymphocytes primarily take place? Lymphocytes are produced primarily in lymphoid tissue (lymph nodes and nodules, thymus and spleen); some are also produced in the bone marrow.
11 Name the granulocytic leukocytes. Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
12 Name the agranular leukocytes. Monocytes and lymphocytes
14 What is the correlation between the production and destruction of the formed elements of the blood? When the body is functioning normally, the production and destruction of the formed elements of the blood are BALANCED so that a constant supply is available.
16 What are cytokines. What are the functions of cytokines? "growth factors" which aredescribe a diverse group of soluble proteins that regulate the functional activities of cells: they are responsible for simulation, inhibition or differentiation of mature blood cells
17 Define apoptosis programmed cell death that eliminates unwanted, abnormal or harmful cells
18 What are interleukins and what characteristics do they share? types of cytokines. 1) multiple biologic activity (regulation of autoimmunity and inflammatory reactions, as well as hematopoiesis)
2) synergistic action
3) interacting systems with amplification potential
4) effective in low concentration
19. Define erythropoiesis Erythropoiesis is a glycoprotein that stimulates the production and differentiation of erythrocytes (RBCs). It is produced primarily in the kidneys
20. What is erythropoietin? Erythropoietin is the hormone, which produces erythrocytes (RBCs).
21. What is leukopoiesis? The production and differentiation of WBC's
What are the two categories of leukopoiesis and what do each product and differentiate? Myelopoiesis involves the production and differentiation of the granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils) and the monocytes. Lymphopoiesis involves the production and differentiation of the lymphocytes.
22. What is leukopoietin? Leukopoietin is the hormone which produces leukocytes (WBCs).
23. What is megakaryopoiesis? Megakaryopoiesis involves the production of the thrombocytes (platelets).
24. What is thrombopoietin? Thrombopoietin is the hormone that produces thrombocytes (platelets).
1. What are the two broad classifications of WBCs? granular and agranular (nongranular)
2. Name the three granulocytic WBC types neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
3. Name the two agranulocytic (nongranulocytic) WBC types. monocytes and lymphocytes.
4. List the terminology used for the neutrophil maturation sequence. Myeloblast, promyelocyte, myelocyte, metamyelocyte, band/stab, and mature neutrophil (segment, seg, PMN)
5. Describe a myeloblast. (note any characteristics about the cell…) large basophilic NO GRANULES, nucleoli present, loose/lacy chromatin, earliest identifiable cell in the BM. 24-48 hrs to mature, less than 1 % are myeloblasts
6. Does the cytoplasm of a myeloblast contain any type of granules? NO
7. Describe a promyelocyte. (note any characteristics about the cell…) larger in size than the myeloblast
8. What are the granules called which are present in the promyelocyte stage? PRIMARY, undifferentiated granules are seen in the cytoplasm
9. Describe a myelocyte. (note any characteristics about the cell. . . ) ends making primary begins making secondary differentiated graules that are specific for granulocytes. It's smaller than a promyelocyte, faint bluish/pink, last cell capable of mitosis, longest maturation 4-5 days
10. What are the granules called which are present in the myelocyte stage? What does their presence mean about the cell? SECONDARY differentiated granules
SECONDARY differentiated granules that are specific for the granulocytes
They are pre-programmed to become (neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil
11. Describe a metamyelocyte. (note any characteristics about the cell. . . ) KIDNEY BEAN shape, clumped chromatin, smaller than myelocyte, complete collection of primary secondary granules and is pale blue/pink, 0 nucleoli
12. What does the nucleus of a metamyelocyte look like? It has a “KIDNEY BEAN” shape
13. Describe a band /stab. (note any characteristics about the cell. . .) Its nucleus can be shaped like a horseshoe, C or S = all sides of nucleus are parallel, smaller than a metamyelocyte, pink cytoplasm. In peripheral blood its found in marginating/circulating pools
14. Describe a mature neutrophi/PMN/segment ("seg"). (note any characteristics about the cell..) 2-5 lobes, cytoplasm is pink in color and contains fine azurophilic granules, most abundant WBC produced.
15. What does PMN stand for? polymorphonuclear means many-shaped nucleus
16. Describe an eosinophil. The cytoplasm of the eosinophil is colorless to pink, but is normally occluded by the presence of large red/orange granules. It is these granules that are characteristic of the eosinophil.
17. Describe a basophil. The basophil is characterized by the presence of large blue/black granules unevenly distributed in its cytoplasm.
18. Where in the body are neutrophils produced? Bone marrow
19. What are the functions of the neutrophil? How does it carry out these functions? phagocytosis and pinocytosis
20. Define circulating pool. When the WBCs are circulating in the peripheral blood, they are considered part of the circulating pool. Circulating pool = cells in the peripheral blood circulation
21. Define marginal pool. When the WBCs are being stored for future use, they are part of the marginating pool. Marginating pool = cells in storage in the tissues, to be used at a later date.
22. How are the circulating and marginal pools related? Freedom of movement of cells between marginating and circulating pools is normal and common. Marginating cells can enter the circulating pool for a variety of reasons; likewise, circulating cells may become marginating cells.
23. Define neutrophilia. What conditions can cause neutrophilia? increase above normal in the number of neutrophils in the peripheral circulation. Stress, tachycardia, fever, labor, strenuous exercise, medications
24. Define neutropenia. What conditions can cause neutropenia? a decrease below normal in the number of neutrophils in the peripheral circulation
vitamin B12/folate deficiency, medications, autoinfection
25. Where are the eosinophils produced? bone marrow
26. What is the function of the eosinophil? defending the body against allergic reactions and parasitic infections
28. Where are basophils produced in the body? Bone marrow
29. What are mast cells? Mast cells are stimulated basophils.
30. Where in the body can mast cells be found? Mast cells are considered tissue cells, in that they move into the tissues to the source of the infection, inflammation, etc. to do their job
31. What is the function of the basophil? basophils are associated with hypersensitivity reactions
34. Describe a monocyte. (note any characteristics about the cell…) largest WBC, folded irregular nuclei, lacy chromatin, "ground glass" cytoplasm
35. What is the color of the cytoplasm of a mature monocyte? blue/gray “ground glass” appearance
36. Where are monocytes produced in the body? bone marrow
37. What is the function of the monocyte? phagocytosis of bacteria fungi, viruses, and dead or dying cells. Once activated to perform its specific function, a monocyte is considered a macrophage
38. What is a macrophage? Once activated to perform its specific function, a monocyte is considered a
39. Where are macrophages found in the body? With the proper stimulus, monocytes will undergo diapedesis through vessel walls and differentiate into macrophages.
40. What is the MPS system? Monocytic/Phagocytic System (MPS system) = the system made up of monocytes and macrophages that phagocytize and rid the body of bacteria fungi, viruses, and dead or dying cells.
41. What are the two categories of macrophages? Explain each. Fixed-found in various tissues
Wandering-are found in the peripheral blood looking for bacteria, fungi, viruses and dead/dying cells to phagocytize
what is diapedesis? the outward passage of blood cells through intact vessel walls.
42. Describe a lymphocyte (note any characteristics of the cell…) 42. Describe a lymphocyte (note any characteristics of the cell…)
1. Define erythropoiesis Erythropoiesis is defined as the proliferation and differentiation of erythrocytes
2. What is erythropoietin? Erythropoietin is a hormone that is produced in the kidneys. Erythropoietin stimulates erythropoiesis
3. Where are erythrocytes produced? Bone marrow
4. What phenomenon of the tissues induces production of RBCs? Tissue hypoxia
5. Where is erythropoietin produced? In the kidneys
6. What is apoptosis? Programmed cell death
7. What two criteria are used to identify RBCs in the RBC maturation sequence? Nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation
9. Of what is the membrane of the RBC composed? (PLC) proteins 52% lipids 40% carbs 8%
10. What are the functions of the RBC membrane? 1) to maintain cell shape
2) to act as a supporting skeletal system for surface antigens
3) to help in the transportation of essential cellular ions and gases
11. What is the life span of the RBCs? 120 days +/- 20 days
12. Define extravascular hemolysis. What percentage of normal RBC destruction is associated with this condition? extravascular hemolysis is defined as hemolysis of the RBCs outside the blood vessels and accounts for 90% of RBC degradation
14. Define intravascular hemolysis. What percentage of normal RBC destruction is associated with this condition? intravascular hemolysis is defined as hemolysis of the RBCs inside the blood vessels and accounts for 10% of RBC degradation
1. What is the major function of the RBC? The most important function of the erythrocyte is to deliver and exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide to the body.
2. What two gases are exchanged between the blood and the tissues? Which gas do the RBCs give up? Which gas does the tissues give up? Oxygen and carbon dioxide The erythrocyte gives up its oxygen to the tissues and the tissues give up their carbon dioxide to the erythrocytes.
3. What is ATP and why is it important to the body? ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the greatest energy source used by the erythrocytes.
4. From what source is ATP derived? The breakdown of glucose, known as glycolysis, is what serves to generate energy (ATP)
5. Define glycolysis. The breakdown of glucose
6. In what two ways does glycolysis take place within the body? anaerobically and aerobically
7. What is the name of the anaerobic pathway that the body uses for glycolysis? How many molecules of ATP are produced from this pathway? Embden-Meyerhof pathway (EMP)glucose is metabolized to lactic acid, using 2 molecules of energy (ATP) per molecule of glucose and maximally providing four molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose, for a net gain of two molecules of ATP.
8. What is the name of the aerobic pathway that the body uses for glycolysis? hexose monophosphate pathway,which prevents the erythrocyte from breaking down prematurely as it delivers its oxygen to the body.
1. Where is hemoglobin found in the body? RBC'S
2. Of what does the structure of hemoglobin (hgb) consist? Each hemoglobin molecule consists of four heme groups and two pairs of unlike polypeptide chains.
3. What is the function of hemoglobin? It gives the red color (pigment) to the RBCs. (Meaning it gives blood its red color). It is the component of the RBC that transport (carries) oxygen to the body.
4. Of what does the heme portion of the hemoglobin (hgb) molecule consist? (structure) The heme structure (portion) of the hemoglobin molecule consists of a ring of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen atoms called protoporphyrin IX with an atom of ferrous (Fe2+) iron attached (ferroprotoporphyrin ring).
5. What is the metal that is associated with the hgb molecule? Iron
6. How many heme groups make up a hgb molecule? four heme groups
7. WHAT DOES THE GLOBIN PORTION PART OF THE Hgb consist of? The globin component in the hemoglobin molecule consists of two pairs of polypeptide chains.
8. What are the globin chains made of and how are they named? made of amino acids called polypeptide chains and are named using ? (alpha), ? (beta), ? (gamma), ? (delta), ? (epsilon), and ? (zeta).
9. What is the structure of the complete hgb molecule? protoporphyrin ring
In what “state” is the iron atom found in the hgb molecule? ferrous form (Fe+2)
What is the function of the ferrous form of iron in the RBC? To deliver and release oxygen to the tissues
10. Define biosynthesis. production
12. What is transferrin and what is its function? Transferrin, a plasma protein, carries iron in the ferric (Fe3+) form to the developing RBCs.
14. When a hgb molecule is being assembled, what two types of chains form a dimer? tetramer? An alpha chain and a non-alpha chain combine to form dimers, and two dimers spontaneously combine to form tetramers.
15. Hgb A consists of what type of chains? two alpha and two beta globin
Hgb A2 consists of what type of chains? two alpha and two delta globin chains
Hgb F consists of what type of chains? two alpha and two gamma globin
16. Which types of hgb make up normal adult hgb? Hb A = >95%
Hb A2 = 2-3 %
Hb F = <1-2%
19. How many molecules of oxygen can a complete hgb molecule carry? What are the oxygen molecules attached to in the hgb molecule? up to 4 and is attached to the heme component
20. What is the oxygen dissociation curve and what is its relationship to the hgb molecule? The oxygen dissociation curve is the graphic representation of the hemoglobin molecule's affinity to the oxygen
21. How does a shift to the left of the oxygen dissociation curve affect the release of oxygen from the hgb molecule to the tissues and relationship with 2,3-BPG ? Left–>less 2,3-BPG, more pH, more affinity O2 less to tissues. Right–>monre 2,3-BPG, less pH

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