Science flash cards for mrs brewers class

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Term Definition
Inherited traits Characteristics inherited from both parents passed on to their offspring
Inbreeding A selective breeding method in which two people with similar sets of alleles are crossed
Purebred The offspring of many generations that have the same traits
Chromosomes A doubled rod of condensed chromatin
Probability A number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur
Homozygous Having two identical alleles for a trait
Heterozygous Having two different alleles for a trait
Heredity The passing of traits from parents to offspring
Pedigree A chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait
Sexual reproduction A reproductive process that involves 2 parents that combine genetic material to produce a new organism which differes from both parents
Genotype An organisms genetic makeup, or allele combinations
Asexual reproduction A reproductive process that only involves one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent
Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
Punnett square A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Selective Breeding The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generations
Clone An organism that is genetically identical to the organism it was produced
Genetics The scientific study if hereditary
Dominant allele An allele whose trait always shows up when the allele is present
Hybrid An organism that has two different alleles for a trait; an organism that is heterygous for a particular trait
Cytosine Is one of the bases that form part of a nucleotide, the structures that are present in DNA chains. Always made up with guanine
Thymine One of the four bases of a nucleotide that are found in DNA. Thymine is paired adenine in DNA sequences and is replaced by ura il in mRNA
Guanine Is one of the bases that form part is nucleotide. Always paired up with cytosine.
Adenine Is one of the bases that form part of a nucleotide. Always pairs up with thymine
Stem cells Can grow into any one any one if the body's 200 cell types. They retrain the ability to divide throughout life and give rid of cells that can become highly specialized and take the place of cells that die or are lost
Phenotype An organisms physical appearance, or visible traits
Mutation A change a gene or chromosome
Carrier A person who has one recessive allele for a trait;but does not have the trait
Genetic engineering The transfer of a gene from the DNA of one organism into another organism, in order to produce an organism with desired traits
Cells The basic unit of structure and function in living things
Genes The sets of information that controls a trait; a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
Traits A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes
Mitosis The stage of the cell cycle during which the cells nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the DNA Is distributed to new daughter cells
Meiosis The process that occurs in the formation of sex cells by which the number of chromosomes is reduced in half
Allele The different forms of a gene
Dominant allele A allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present

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