Science MidTerm Review

Question Answer
A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a set of observations
The role of a control in an experiment is to provide a basis of comparison to the experimental group
If you eat a hamburger, you are mainly eating ground-up beef muscle. What levels of organization are represented in this ground-up muscle? organelle, cell, and tissue
An example of a stimulus that a plant would respond to is: sunlight.
Which of the following things would be considered complex AND organized? red blood cell in the human body
DNA is a molecule that directly allows a living thing to: store information.
The process of homeostasis is: how organisms maintain a relatively constant internal environment.
Living systems need energy to: grow larger, replace worn-out parts and build new parts, help maintain a relatively constant internal environment.
The complexity of living systems: is also highly organized.
Identify a characteristic that is representative of some, but not all, life-forms. movement over great distances
Which function below is performed by eukaryotic cells, but not prokaryotic cells? internal digestion of cellular garbage by a structure called a lysosome
Biology is the study of _____. life
Which series of terms is in the sequence of biological organization from the simplest to the most complex? cell, tissue, organ, population
Compared to a solution of pH 3, a solution of pH 1 is 100 times more acidic.
Household ammonia has a pH of 12; household bleach has a pH of 13. Which of the following statements about them is true? The ammonia has 10 times as many H+ ions as the bleach.
Which four elements are the primary components of important biological molecules, such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrates? nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
An atom and an ion of the same element differ in the number of _____. electrons
The hydrogen bonds in liquid water are less stable than in ice. Why? There is less movement of molecules in colder conditions.
To understand biology, we need to understand chemistry. Why? Chemicals are fundamental to the structure and function of all living things.
The pH of human blood is maintained at around pH 7.4. Why does a buffer system need to be present in blood to protect against changes in pH due to increases in acids? The metabolic processes of the body produce more acids than bases.
The number of protons in an uncharged atom _____. equals the total number of electrons in the orbital shells
Two atoms of the same element must have the same number of _____. protons
Which of the following subatomic particles shown below always has a positive charge? proton
Which of the following describes a covalent bond? Two or more atoms share electron pairs.
An ionic bond in which a sodium atom transfers an electron to a chlorine atom, making sodium ion and a chlorine ion. This is a result of what? an attraction between atoms that have opposite charges
A hydrogen bond is _____. weak
What is the tendency of water molecules to stick together is called what? Cohesion
Water can resist temperature change because _____. heating water absorbs energy by disrupting the hydrogen bonds before evaporation can occur
Cells are surrounded by water, and cells themselves are about 70-95% water. As a result, _____. a variety of nutrient molecules are readily available as dissolved solutes
What property of water makes it move upward from the roots of plants? cohesion
What is an acid? An acid _____. donates hydrogen ions to solutions
A solution with a pH of 7 is neutral.
Organic compounds always contain carbon.
A hydroxyl group is characteristic of alcohols.
Which of the following is a carboxyl group? ?COOH
Which of the following is an amino group? ?NH2
Which of the following statements about the monomers and polymers found in living organisms is false? Monomers are joined together by the process of hydrolysis.
What is the general function of enzymes within a cell? to speed up chemical reactions
The storage form of carbohydrates is ________ in animals and ________ in plants. glycogen . . . starch
Fatty acids are hydrophobic.
Proteins differ from one another because the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain differs from protein to protein.
Which of the following statements about enzymes is false? They are monomers used to build proteins.
The cells that produce hair contain a lot of ________, while the cells that produce the oils that coat the hair contain a lot of ________. rough endoplasmic reticulum . . . smooth endoplasmic reticulum
A woman is having trouble becoming pregnant. Examination of her partner's sperm indicates that dynein feet are missing from the flagella in his sperm cells. A physician explains that this could interfere with fertility by preventing the sperm from swimming to the egg cell.
Which of the following statements about cells is true? All cells have internal structures that move.
The idea that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells defines cell theory.
Plasma membranes are permeable to nonpolar molecules such as CO2.
Which of the following structures is exclusively associated with prokaryotic cells? nucleoid
Unlike animal cells, plant cells have ________ and ________. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have ________. chloroplasts . . . cell walls . . . centrioles
The nucleus of a cell contains DNA.
During cell reproduction, chromatin fibers coil up into structures called chromosomes.
Which location in the cell is unlikely to contain ribosomes or ribosomal subunits? plasma membrane
The endomembrane system includes all of the following organelles except the peroxisome.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum stores calcium ions in muscle cells.
The Golgi apparatus stores, modifies, and packages proteins.
The function of mitochondria is cellular respiration.
The function of chloroplasts is photosynthesis.
The stroma is the thick fluid enclosed by the inner chloroplast membrane.
Mitochondria differ from chloroplasts in that mitochondria contain membrane folds called cristae, whereas chloroplasts contain disk-like vesicles in stacks called grana.
Microfilaments differ from microtubules in that microfilaments are mainly composed of actin, whereas microtubules are composed of tubulin.
Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is false? Once laid down, the elements of the cytoskeleton are fixed and remain permanently in place.
Cilia differ from flagella in that cilia are typically more numerous and shorter than flagella.
Most animal cells are embedded in an extracellular matrix.
Which of the following substances would have the most trouble crossing a biological membrane by diffusing through the lipid bilayer? Na+
Which of the following statements is true among all types of passive transport? The concentration gradient is the driving force.
A hypotonic cell explodes
The fluid mosaic model describes the plasma membrane as consisting of diverse proteins embedded in a phospholipid bilayer.
Most of the functions of a cell membrane, including transport and enzymatic function, are performed by proteins.
Plasma membranes are selectively permeable. This means that the plasma membrane allows some substances to enter or leave a cell more easily than others.
Oxygen crosses a plasma membrane by passive transport.
Diffusion does not require the cell to expend ATP. Therefore, diffusion is considered a type of passive transport.
Osmosis can be defined as the diffusion of water.
A cell that neither gains nor loses water when it is immersed in a solution must be isotonic to its environment.
Which of the following processes can move a solute against its concentration gradient? active transport
Phagocytosis is to eating as pinocytosis is to drinking.
The active site of an enzyme is the region of an enzyme that attaches to a substrate.
Which of the following statements regarding enzymes is true? Enzymes catalyze specific reactions.
Respiration ________, and cellular respiration ________. is gas exchange . . . produces ATP
The processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary. During these energy conversions, some energy is lost in the form of heat.
Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true? Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, and cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria.
Which of the following are products of cellular respiration? energy to make ATP and carbon dioxide
The overall equation for the cellular respiration of glucose is C6H12O6 + 6 O2 > 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy.
The functioning of an electron transport chain is analogous to a Slinky toy going down a flight of stairs.
Which of the following metabolic pathways is common in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism? glycolysis
As a result of glycolysis there is a net gain of ________ ATPs. 2
After glycolysis but before the citric acid cycle, pyruvate is oxidized.
Which of the following processes produces the most ATP per molecule of glucose oxidized? aerobic respiration
Mitochondria transfer ________ energy from ________ to ATP; chloroplasts transform ________ energy into the chemical energy of ATP. chemical . . . food . . . light
Plant cells have mitochondria and chloroplasts.
The thylakoid membrane is the membrane that surrounds the stack of "cookies"
What is the name given to organisms that can make their own food and thus sustain themselves without consuming organic molecules derived from other organisms? autotrophs
What is the source of energy that provides the boost for electrons during photosynthesis? light
Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis is false? ATP is not produced during photosynthesis, but only during cellular respiration.
The light reactions occur in the ________, while the Calvin cycle occurs in the ________. thylakoid membranes . . . stroma
Why are most plants green? Chlorophyll a reflects green light.
Which of the following features likely accounts for the difference between plant and animal cell cytokinesis? Plant cells have cell walls.
A plant cell in telophase Has a cell wall and have 2 distinct cells forming
Which of the following statements regarding cell division is false? Cell division is common in eukaryotes but rare in prokaryotes.
Sister chromatids are joined together at a centromere.
Which of the following occurs during interphase? cell growth and duplication of the chromosomes
Eukaryotic cells spend most of their cell cycle in which phase? interphase
The genetic material is duplicated during the S phase.
The process by which the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell divides to produce two cells is called cytokinesis.
The phase of mitosis during which the mitotic spindle begins to form is prophase.
During which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up on a plane equidistant from the two spindle poles? metaphase
At the start of mitotic anaphase, the centromeres of each chromosome come apart.
During which phase of mitosis does the nuclear envelope re-form? telophase
Which of the following statements regarding the function of mitosis is false? Mitosis allows organisms to generate genetic diversity.
Which of the following statements regarding mitosis and meiosis is false? Mitosis produces daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
Of the following wavelengths of light, which would you expect to be reflected or transmitted by chlorophyll a? green
Which of the following are produced during the Calvin cycle? glucose, ADP, NADP+
Which of the following is part of the light reaction? formation of waste products in the form of O2
Which of the following are produced during the light reactions of photosynthesis? ATP, NADPH, O2

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