Science- minerals

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Term Definition
Minerals Minerals can look like gems you see in jewlery, but most minerals look like rocks. Rocks are made of minerals, but minerals are not made of rock. There are 4 requirements a mineral must meet: 1. Minerals are formed by nature.
Minerals~continued 2. minerals are in the solid phase. 3. minerals are inorganic (meaning it comes from nonliving things) 4. minerals have a crystalline structure. Minerals are categorized by physical and chemical properties. They are used in coins, wiring, glass, jewlery,
Element An element is made of just one type atom. All known elements are listed on a chart called the Periodic Table of elements. Minerals are made of one or more element. Exapmles of minerals made of just one type of element (native elements) are: gold(Au)
Atoms If you could divide an element over and over, an atom is the smallest part that had all properties of that element. Each element has its own special density, boiling and freezing points, and other properties.
Compound A substance made of two or more elements chemically joined to one another. Most minerals are made of compounds of several different elements. Example: sodium(Na) and Chlorine(Cl)= sodium chlorine(NaCl), known as the mineral halite or rock salt.
Crystals Crystals are solid, geometric forms of minerals made by patterns of atoms that repeat throughout the mineral. A crystal's shape is decided by how the atoms are arranged inside it. Some crystals shapes are cubes, pyramids, rectangular prisms, etc.
Colors When trying to identify minerals, a tricky thing is that the exact same mineral can come in many colors. Various colors of the same mineral are dur to impurities or weathering. Therefore, color is NOT reliable in helping one figure out a mineral's ID.
Luster The way a surface reflects light. A mineral's luster can be shiny or dull. To ID minerals in our lab, we'll simplify and only use 2 lusters: 1: If its reflective at all(looks like metal) then we'll call it matallic. 2: if not refelctive its non-metallic.
Streak Color of a mineral in powder form. To reduce to powder, rub it against a tile called a streak plate. The weird thing is streak isnt always the same color as the mineral itself! Since streak isnt affected by weathering, its more reliable than color to ID
Cleavage and Fracture Because of the arrangement of the atoms in a mineral,different minerals break in different ways. Cleavage is the tendency for minerals to break along smooth, flat surfaces. Fracture is a tendency for minerals to break unevenly. With this in mind,
Hardness Hardness is a minerals resistance to being scratched. To find the hardness, Mon's hardness scale is used. Diamond is the hardest mineral with a hardess rating of 10, and talc is the softest mineral with hardness of 1.
Density If you pick up a big thing and its suprisingly light and pick up a small item and its suprisingly heavy, youve observed density differences. Density is how much matter there is in an amount of space. The formula for density is mass divided by volume,
Special Properties Some properties are specific to only a few types of minerals. A special properties can help quickly ID unknown minerals if they test positive foor it.
Fluorescence glowing- some minerals glow under UV light(black light)
Chemical Reaction to an acid- some fizz (effervesce) if weak acid is dropped on them.
Optical Properties Some make a double image if an object's vewied through a thin piece
Taste Some have a salty taste (but it violates saftey contract to taste the minerals)
Magnetism Some have a magnetic reaction and can attract iron particles
Radioactivity Some are radioactive and will cause a Geiger counter to tick
Mining Surface mining removes minerals at or near the surface of the Earth. Sub-surface mining takes from the ground minerals not found on Earth's surface. mining gives us what we need, but often hurts plants and animals, including us.
Reclamation Reduces harmful effects of mining. It's an attempt to return land to its original state after mining is complete. Minerals are non-renewable resouces since theyre slowly produced by Earth's process. Humans dont live long enough to wait for Earth to

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