The basics of Genetics

Question Answer
Traits Phiyical Characteristics
Heredity The passing of traits from parents to offspring
Genetics Scientific study of Heredity
Pruebred One that always produces offspring with the same form of a trait as the parents (homozygous)
Genes Factors that control traits (a portion of DNA)
Alleles Different forms of a gene (one for short and for tall)
Dominate Alleles one whoes trait always shows up in an Organism when the allele is [resent (upper case letter)
Recessive Allele One whose trait is masked or covered up when the dominate allele is present(lower case)
Hybrid An organism that has 2 different alleles for trait ; is hederozygous
Probibility The Chance
Punnet Square Chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Phenotype physical appearance or visible trait that you can see in the person
Genotype organism's genetic makeup or allele combination this you can't see
Homoaygous 2 identical, either dominate or recessive, alleles for a trait
Heterozygous has 2 different alleles for a trait, an upper case letter and lower case (hybrid)
Codoninance Alleles are neither dominate or recessive,as a result neither allele is masked (results would be a mixed fur)
Meiosis Process where the nuumber of chromosomes is reduced by half in order to form sex cells
Mutation change in chromosomes or gene
Multiple Alleles or more forms of a code for a single trait (for example blood type
Sex Linked Genes X and Y chromosomes
Karyotype picture of all the chromosomes arranged in pairs
How many PAIRS of Chromosomes does the body have? 23
How many Chromosomes does the body have? 46
How many chromosomes does a sex cell have? 23 individual
Diploid 2 complete sets of the chromosomes in the human body
Haploid Number of unpaired chromosomes in a sex cell
Cloning Off spring completely identical to the parent
DNA the Hereditary materials made up of chromosomes
Cell Division Results in 2 identical daughter cells identical to the parent cells
Father of genetics Gregor Mendel

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