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___gain more heat than they lose tropical latitudes
___ lose more heat to space than they gain high latitudes
where is the amount of sun energy received and lost balanced? 38 degrees N and 38 degrees S
____ carries the heat to SW England where we can find palm trees gulf stream
the ocean atmosphere that contain water vapor can hold a huge amount of ____ (thermal inertia) latent heat
wind —> hadley cells
coriolis effect —> Farrel and polar cells
variation on the water vapor saturation with ____ temperature
what happens when warm air bumps up cool air? widespread clouds and precipitation
wind is formed by 2 pressure systems, ___ and ____ low/ high pressure
high and low pressure center with wind direction circles are ___ with pressure in mb (millibars) isobars
___ formed when cool air from over the water is moving towards land sea breeze
___ occur after sunset when air warmed by the land blows towards water land breeze
___(hurricanes) form from disturbances within one warm and humid air mass tropical cyclone
___ form at the boundary between polar and farrel cells(polar front) extratropical cyclones
N. Americas most violent extratropical cyclones shown in winter Nor' easters (northeasters)
a tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a ____ and numerous thunderstorms that produce stronge winds and heavy rain large low-pressure center
tremendous energy is released as moisture changes from ____ water vapor to liquid
what is necessary for hurricane formation? on tropical ocean (energy source)
latent heat
coriolis effect
part of a hurricane that is relatively calm, light winds and few clouds eye
there are sometimes gaps between them where no rain is found and there is areas of rising and sinking air spiral rain bands
hurricanes form ____ which are most deadly aspect of the cyclone storm surges
___ increases when waves and strong winds bring water mass near shore height
low atmospheric pressure at storms center produces dome of sea water
global warming does not increase the # of storms but increases their____ intensity
a wave is a ____ that propagates through space and time with transfer of energy physical disturbance
waves are characterized into 2 groups: longitudinal and transverse
back and forth, have the same direction of oscillation or vibration along their direction of travel longitudinal waves
up and down, moving wave that consists of oscillations occurring perpendicular to direction on energy transfer transverse waves
a ribbon of energy is moving at the speed of the wave but water is not
ex) the "wave" at a sports event
ocean wave
____ is most useful measure of wave size wavelength
waves transmit ___ along oceans surface energy
most wave energy is typically concentrated in ___ wind waves
____ long wave in a lake or ocean basin that sloshes back and forth from on end to the other seiche
at the ____, water moves sideways and does not rise or fall node
waves of moving energy in which the waves form moves in one direction along surface progressive waves
waves in which particles of water move in closed circles as the wave passes orbital waves
capillary waves become ____(wind waves) as their wave length exceeds 1.74 centimeters and continue to grow as long as the wind above them exceeds their speed gravity waves
known as "baby waves", wavelength less than 2 cm capillary waves
must be moving faster than the wave crest for energy transfer to continue wind speed
wind that blows for a short time that will not generate large waves wind duration
uninterrupted distance over which the wind blows without changing direction fetch
wave size increases with increase ____ wind speed, duration, fetch
___ are strongly influenced by winds geostrophic currents
windiest and waviest ocean? the southern ocean
strong and continuous winds of the ___ make the highest waves in the southern ocean west wind drift
when waves meet up, they ___ with one another interfere
2 waves interference that cancel each other out destructive interference
additive interference that results in waves larger than the original waves constructive interference
these freak waves occur due to interference and result in a wave crest higher than the theoretical maximum rogue waves
contraint of circular wave motion ____ the wave slows
the wave ___ when the ratio of wave height ro water depth is about 3:4 breaks
slowing and bending of waves in shallow water wave refraction
propagation of a wave around an obstacle wave diffraction
occurs when waves " bounce back" from an obstacle they encounter wave reflection
what different ways can waves break against the shore? plunging & spilling waves
break violently against the shore, leaving an air-filled tube, or channel, between the crest and foot of the wave, formed when waves approach a shore over a steeply sloped bottom plunging waves
occur on gradually sloping ocean bottoms spilling waves
abrupt bulge of water driven by hurricanes or frontal storm storm surges
long- wavelength, shallow water, progressive waves caused by the rapid displacement of ocean water tsunami
2 largest causes of disasters storm surges/tsunami
landslides, falling icebergs, volcanic eruptions, asteroid impacts, and other direct displacements of water surface generate ____ tsunami
11 destructive tsunami have claimed more than ___ lives since 1990 180,000
speed of a tsunami can be calculated by ___,__,__ c=square root gd
9.8 meters per second (acceleration due to gravity) in the tsunami equation = __? the term "g"
depth (a typical Pacific abyssal depth is 4,600 m) in the tsunami equation =__? the term "d"
things todo before/during a tsunami? 1) turn on radio
2) move inland high ground
3) stay away from beach
the first part of a tsunami to reach land is a trough called ____ drawback
___ are periodic, short-term changes in the oceans surfaces height at a particular place tides
tides are the ___ of all waves longest
tides are caused by a combination on the gravitational force of the: moon/sun/motion of earth
tides are ____ forced waves
waves such as wind waves, seiches, and tsunamis are ____, which are no longer being acted on by the force that created them and require alternate forces free waves
tides are ___ of the forces that cause them never free
how ocean water moved, ____ tidal bulges
the moods gravity attracts the ___ toward it ocean
motion of the earth around the center mass of the earth-moon system throws up a ____ on the side of earth opposite the moon bulge
combination on the 2 effects creates 2 ____ tidal bulges
when the mood attracts the ocean gravitational force
when the earths motion creates opposite bulge centrifugal force (inertia)
net force when effects of inertia and gravitational attraction are combined, ____ tractive force
the 2 forces, ___ and ___ that can move the ocean and are precisely equal in strength but opposite in direction, thus balanced only @ center of earth inertia,gravitational attraction
the month is 29.5 days, 24 hours and 50 min, ____ lunar calendar
____ arrives 50 min. later each day highest tide
spring tide and neap tide are influences of the ___ sun
relationship of spring and neap tides to the ___ of the moon phases
exceptionally high/low tides occur at time of the new moon or the full moon when the sun, moon, and earth are approximately aligned spring tides
the lowest tides of the lunar month, which occur in the second and fourth quarters of the moon neap tide
movement of water towards and away from land with the high/low tides generates ____ tidal currents
the flow of water towards the land with the approaching high tide flood current
the flow of water away from the land with the approaching low tide Ebb current
reach max ___ midway between high/low tide velocity
time of no currents, occurs at high/low tides when the current changes direction slack water
example is Los Angelas tides mixed tide
example is Mobile, Alabama tides diurnal tide
example is Cape Code tides semidiurnal tide
fort myers is a ___ zone micotidal
tides are in broad confined ____ basins
____ generally increases with increasing distane from amphidromic points tidal ranges
largest tidal range (hopewell rocks) is in eastern ____ where tidal range is near 15m bay of Fundy
____ do not develop in narrow basins because they provide no space for rotation true amphidromic systems
tides in the Bar of Fundy and Nova Scotia are extreme because because water in the bay naturally ____(seiches) at the same time frequency as the lunar tide resonates
tidal ranges increase if a bay tapers landward because water is ___ toward the basins narrow end funneled
results from a coincidence of timing: the time is takes a large wave to go from the mouth of the bay to the inner shore and back is practically the same as the time from one high tide to the next tidal resonance
the worlds largest tidal bore ___, arrives on schedule in the Qiantang River the "silver dragon"
wall of water the moves upriver, ___ tidal bore
3 factors of a tidal bore: 1) large tidal range
2) tapering basin geometry
3) water depths that decrease systematically upriver
tidal bores are seen at the ___ river mouth
tidal energy from the ___ and tidal friction is ultimately dissipated as heat rotation of earth
____ do not move tidal bulges
___ is friction that gradually slows the earths rotation by a few hundredth of a second per century tidal friction
tropical cyclones in the northern hemisphere spin ____ counterclockwise
the major winds in Hadley cells are called ____ trade winds
air condition of low pressure ____ hot and humid
air condition of high pressure ___ chilly and dry
heating of earth varies and latitude and ice reflects much of the solar energy that reaches the poles, _____ solar heating of earth

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