Unit 8 Test

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Question Answer
What are units of wrapped DNA? Nucleosomes
What are the different nucleotide bases in DNA? Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine
What is replication? When a cell divides into an identical cell and makes a copy of it's DNA
Walther Flemming German biologist, discovered chromosomes in 1882
How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have? 23
What are autosomes? The 22 pairs in chromosomes, same in both male and female
What is the 23rd pair of chromosomes? The sex chromosome, which is the primary factor in determining the gender of the offspring
What chromosomes do females have? XX
What chromosomes do males have? Xy
What is mitosis? the cell process in which the nucleus divides to form two nuclei identical to each other, and to the original nucleus in a series of steps
What are the stages of mitosis? Prophase, metaphase, interphase, and anaphase
What is transcription? The process of transferring information from DNA to RNA
What are the differences between DNA and RNA? DNA is a double helix, RNA is a single helix. RNA has Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, but instead of Thymine, it has Uracil.
What is translation? It is when three specific bases equal one amino acid, it takes place in the cytoplasm
What is heredity? it is the process of passing biological traits from parent to offspring, through genes
What is the section of the DNA molecule that carries the instructions for the construction of proteins idk
What is the study of how heredity works and, in particular, genes? Genetics
Who is Walter Sutton? An American graduate who in 1902, when he was researching chromosomes, discovered that genes are located on chromosomes
What are alleles? Different forms of genes that carry information for a specific trait
How do we write alleles? Using upper and lower case letters
What does Homeozygous mean? Meaning the same
What does Heterozygous mean? Meaning different
What is the likelihood that something will occur? Probability
What are Punnett Squares? special charts that show the possible gene combinations in a cross between two organisms
What did Gregor Mendel do? He researched peas, english geneticist, developed punnett square
What is the phenotype? The physical appearance
What is the genotype? The actual genetic makeup
Who is considered the father of genetics? Gregor Mendel
What is a sexual reproduction? when one parent transmits all of its genetic information to the offspring , therefore they are identical
What is sexual reproduction? When two parents contribute their genetics to the offspring
What is another name for sex cells? Gametes
What is reproduction? when the egg and the sperm unite
What is meiosis? a cell division that produces haploid cells, not diploid
What is a mutation? Any change in DNA
What is genetic engineering? the process in which a sequence of DNA from an organism is first isolated, then inserted into the DNA of another organism, changing that organisms' DNA
What is all of the genetic material in an organism? Deoxyribonucleicacid
What is forensics? The use of DNA to identify a person
What is DNA? nucleic acid that is shaped in a double helix that carries genetic info
Who were Watson and Crick they stole Franklin's ideas and got the Nobel Prize for it (discovered structure of DNA)
Who was Rosalind Franklin? Discovered stuff about chromosomes with an x ray died of cancer
Who was Walther Flemming? German biologisst who discovered chromosomes in 1882
Who was Walter Sutton discovered genes are located on chromosomes
What is the chromosome theory genes are located on chromosomes
what is a chromosome? strucutre of nucleic acid located in the nucleus
what is a chromatin the material of which the chromosomes of organisms are composed
what is a chromatid half of a chromosome
what are nucleosomes basic unit of dna
22 pairs of the chromosomes are what? autosomes
the 23rd pair of chromosomes? sex chromosomes
what is dna replication when dna divides making an exact copy
what is mitosis division of the nucleus of a cell
what are the stages of mitosis interphase, prophase, metaphase, and anaphase

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