Western Governor’s University, General Education Social Science, chapter 2

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A process that intervenes to ensure that organisms achieve an adjustment to their enviornment that is beneficial. adaption
A prehuman who lived from about 4.5 million years ago. (researchers disagree on the certainty of this) Australopithecus
Carriers of genes, or the hereditary blueprints of organisms. Each huan inherits a set of 23 chromosomes from each parent. chromosomes
The closest predecessors of perhaps contemporarites of modern humans, who lives about 35,000 years ago. They were expert toolmakers and artisits, and they lived in tribes that displayed evidence of rules and kinship systems. Cro-Magnon
Change in gene frequencies is promoted because an adaptation to a new environment is needed. directional selection
Deoxyribonucleic acid. A complex biochemical substance that is the basic building block of life. it determines the inheritance of specific traits. DNA
Period of sexual receptivity and ability to conceive. estrus
A theory that explains change in living organisms and variation within species. Evolution functions according to processes of natural selection, mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and speciation. evolution
The movement of genes from one gene pool to another. It results in new combinations of genes in the offspring. gene flow
The proportion in which the various genes occur in an inbreeding population. gene frequency
All of the genetic material available to a population to be inherited by the next generation. gene pool
Hereditary unites that transmit an individual's traits. They are contained in the chromosomes and made up of DNA. genes
The fluctuations in frequencies of specific traits in a small, isolated population, so that visible differences between an isolated population and the population from which it broke away become obvious. genetic drift
The science of heredity. genetics
The actual genetic composition of an organism, which is not necessarily expressed. genotype
Prehuman creatures who walked on two feet. hominids
The upright hominid thought to be a direct ancestor of modern humans. Homo erectus
A species whose fossils date back 75,000 years (or perhaps 195,000 years) and includes Neanderthals. The species label for modern humans is Homo sapiens sapiens, whose fossils date back 30,000 year and include Cro-Magnon. Homo sapiens
A permanent change in genetic material. mustation
A process of evolution in which random traits are tested for their survival value; the successful traits eventually become extinct. natural selection
A subspecies of Homo sapiens (but some consider them hominids) whose fossil remains date from 70,000 to 35,000 years ago. They are known to have buried their dead. Neanderthal
The physical, or outward, appearance of an organism. phenotype
An order of mammals to which monkeys, apes, and humans belong. primates
a hominoid having hominid-like features, dated between 14 and 18 million years ago. Ramapithecus
When natural selection promotes the status quo rather than change, because change would be determined to the organism's adaption to its environment. stabilizing selection

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